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Drug delivery systems, CNS protection, and the blood brain barrier.

Upadhyay RK - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics.In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained.Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India.

ABSTRACT
Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

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Showing important neurological problems which essentially need proper drug delivery for treatment.
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fig1: Showing important neurological problems which essentially need proper drug delivery for treatment.

Mentions: So far many different drug delivery methods have been developed. Few of them are delivered neurologically invasive and found unsafe for drug delivery. These are neurological direct injections or structural disruption of BBB by using ultrasound. Other methods which show broad spectrum and deliver wide range of drugs to CNS are pharmacological and physiological methods which are quite safe and noninvasive (Figure 1, Table 1). More specifically neurosurgical strategies include BBB disruption by osmotic imbalance or by using vasoactive compounds, intraventricular drug infusion, and intracerebral implants. In pharmacological methods lipid carrier or liposomes are used for drug delivery. Physiological strategies are followed by applying endogenous transport mechanisms by using either carrier mediated transport of nutrients or receptor mediated transport of peptides. From clinical investigations physiological strategies are proved better and potential delivery methods, because of wider safety cover provided by drug transport. Further, conventional strategies should be improved for safe delivery of different drugs to CNS (Figure 2). These include liposomes, colloidal drug carriers, micelles, chimeric peptide technology, intranasal and olfactory route of administration, and nanotechnology. More specifically, nanoenabled delivery systems offer a promising solution to improve the uptake and targeted delivery of the drugs into the brain.


Drug delivery systems, CNS protection, and the blood brain barrier.

Upadhyay RK - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Showing important neurological problems which essentially need proper drug delivery for treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127280&req=5

fig1: Showing important neurological problems which essentially need proper drug delivery for treatment.
Mentions: So far many different drug delivery methods have been developed. Few of them are delivered neurologically invasive and found unsafe for drug delivery. These are neurological direct injections or structural disruption of BBB by using ultrasound. Other methods which show broad spectrum and deliver wide range of drugs to CNS are pharmacological and physiological methods which are quite safe and noninvasive (Figure 1, Table 1). More specifically neurosurgical strategies include BBB disruption by osmotic imbalance or by using vasoactive compounds, intraventricular drug infusion, and intracerebral implants. In pharmacological methods lipid carrier or liposomes are used for drug delivery. Physiological strategies are followed by applying endogenous transport mechanisms by using either carrier mediated transport of nutrients or receptor mediated transport of peptides. From clinical investigations physiological strategies are proved better and potential delivery methods, because of wider safety cover provided by drug transport. Further, conventional strategies should be improved for safe delivery of different drugs to CNS (Figure 2). These include liposomes, colloidal drug carriers, micelles, chimeric peptide technology, intranasal and olfactory route of administration, and nanotechnology. More specifically, nanoenabled delivery systems offer a promising solution to improve the uptake and targeted delivery of the drugs into the brain.

Bottom Line: Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics.In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained.Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India.

ABSTRACT
Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus