Limits...
Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Microstructural changes in the femur and tibia at day 33 after unloading because of SCI and reloading by weight bearing (SCI + PS) and artificial muscle contraction (SCI + ES). Acute SCI increased bone resorption (asterisks) in both the tibia and the femur but was remarkably ameliorated by PS. (SCI: spinal cord injury; PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Images were captured with an augment of 50x, whence the growth plate was used as the anatomical landmark for the superior limit of the image.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127270&req=5

fig7: Microstructural changes in the femur and tibia at day 33 after unloading because of SCI and reloading by weight bearing (SCI + PS) and artificial muscle contraction (SCI + ES). Acute SCI increased bone resorption (asterisks) in both the tibia and the femur but was remarkably ameliorated by PS. (SCI: spinal cord injury; PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Images were captured with an augment of 50x, whence the growth plate was used as the anatomical landmark for the superior limit of the image.

Mentions: SEM images (Figures 7 and 8) showed intense changes in the bone microstructure in the femurs and tibias of the SCI animals, mainly on day 63. Mechanical loading by both weight bearing (SCI + PS) and muscle contraction (SCI + ES) improved the bone microstructure of the osteopenic bones, whereas the changes were greater following PS.


Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Microstructural changes in the femur and tibia at day 33 after unloading because of SCI and reloading by weight bearing (SCI + PS) and artificial muscle contraction (SCI + ES). Acute SCI increased bone resorption (asterisks) in both the tibia and the femur but was remarkably ameliorated by PS. (SCI: spinal cord injury; PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Images were captured with an augment of 50x, whence the growth plate was used as the anatomical landmark for the superior limit of the image.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127270&req=5

fig7: Microstructural changes in the femur and tibia at day 33 after unloading because of SCI and reloading by weight bearing (SCI + PS) and artificial muscle contraction (SCI + ES). Acute SCI increased bone resorption (asterisks) in both the tibia and the femur but was remarkably ameliorated by PS. (SCI: spinal cord injury; PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Images were captured with an augment of 50x, whence the growth plate was used as the anatomical landmark for the superior limit of the image.
Mentions: SEM images (Figures 7 and 8) showed intense changes in the bone microstructure in the femurs and tibias of the SCI animals, mainly on day 63. Mechanical loading by both weight bearing (SCI + PS) and muscle contraction (SCI + ES) improved the bone microstructure of the osteopenic bones, whereas the changes were greater following PS.

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus