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Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Anterior (a), lateral (b), and posterior (c) views of tibias from 3 different groups: Sham, SCI, and SCI + ES. The lack of muscle contraction caused anatomic changes in the tibias of the SCI rats. The anterior margin and tibial tuberosity are noticeably reduced in SCI (white arrows, (a) and (b)) when compared with Sham and SCI + ES. Conversely, ES stimulated bone formation and increased these anatomic prominences (white arrowheads, (a) and (b)). In the posterior view (c), the posterior tibial depression is practically nonexistent at the unloaded tibia (black arrow, SCI) but becomes more evident with muscle electrical stimulation (black arrowhead, SCI + ES). (SCI: spinal cord injury; ES: electrical stimulation).
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fig6: Anterior (a), lateral (b), and posterior (c) views of tibias from 3 different groups: Sham, SCI, and SCI + ES. The lack of muscle contraction caused anatomic changes in the tibias of the SCI rats. The anterior margin and tibial tuberosity are noticeably reduced in SCI (white arrows, (a) and (b)) when compared with Sham and SCI + ES. Conversely, ES stimulated bone formation and increased these anatomic prominences (white arrowheads, (a) and (b)). In the posterior view (c), the posterior tibial depression is practically nonexistent at the unloaded tibia (black arrow, SCI) but becomes more evident with muscle electrical stimulation (black arrowhead, SCI + ES). (SCI: spinal cord injury; ES: electrical stimulation).

Mentions: Morphological changes in the macroscopic anatomy of the tibia were observed following SCI. Figure 6 shows the tibias from the Sham 63 d, SCI 63 d, and SCI + ES 63 d groups. Regarding the macroscopic proportion of the normal tibia, it was possible to estimate a reduced bone size after SCI. In addition, the anterior tuberosity of the tibia was smaller in the SCI group, most likely because of the lack of patellar ligament traction. In group SCI + ES 63 d, the anterior tuberosity of the tibia was more evident, most likely because of the electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle.


Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Anterior (a), lateral (b), and posterior (c) views of tibias from 3 different groups: Sham, SCI, and SCI + ES. The lack of muscle contraction caused anatomic changes in the tibias of the SCI rats. The anterior margin and tibial tuberosity are noticeably reduced in SCI (white arrows, (a) and (b)) when compared with Sham and SCI + ES. Conversely, ES stimulated bone formation and increased these anatomic prominences (white arrowheads, (a) and (b)). In the posterior view (c), the posterior tibial depression is practically nonexistent at the unloaded tibia (black arrow, SCI) but becomes more evident with muscle electrical stimulation (black arrowhead, SCI + ES). (SCI: spinal cord injury; ES: electrical stimulation).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127270&req=5

fig6: Anterior (a), lateral (b), and posterior (c) views of tibias from 3 different groups: Sham, SCI, and SCI + ES. The lack of muscle contraction caused anatomic changes in the tibias of the SCI rats. The anterior margin and tibial tuberosity are noticeably reduced in SCI (white arrows, (a) and (b)) when compared with Sham and SCI + ES. Conversely, ES stimulated bone formation and increased these anatomic prominences (white arrowheads, (a) and (b)). In the posterior view (c), the posterior tibial depression is practically nonexistent at the unloaded tibia (black arrow, SCI) but becomes more evident with muscle electrical stimulation (black arrowhead, SCI + ES). (SCI: spinal cord injury; ES: electrical stimulation).
Mentions: Morphological changes in the macroscopic anatomy of the tibia were observed following SCI. Figure 6 shows the tibias from the Sham 63 d, SCI 63 d, and SCI + ES 63 d groups. Regarding the macroscopic proportion of the normal tibia, it was possible to estimate a reduced bone size after SCI. In addition, the anterior tuberosity of the tibia was smaller in the SCI group, most likely because of the lack of patellar ligament traction. In group SCI + ES 63 d, the anterior tuberosity of the tibia was more evident, most likely because of the electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle.

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus