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Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Macroscopic changes in the tibia at 33 and 63 days after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI rats showed deficits at increasing the bone morphometric measures to varying levels, whereas reloading through passive standing (PS) reversed this loss and electrical stimulation (ES) also showed the same tendency. Asterisks (∗) and hash (#) signs indicate a significant difference (P < 0.05).
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fig5: Macroscopic changes in the tibia at 33 and 63 days after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI rats showed deficits at increasing the bone morphometric measures to varying levels, whereas reloading through passive standing (PS) reversed this loss and electrical stimulation (ES) also showed the same tendency. Asterisks (∗) and hash (#) signs indicate a significant difference (P < 0.05).

Mentions: Similar to the results observed in the femur, the tibias from the paraplegic rats also failed at increasing the morphological measurements, when compared to the weight-matched controls (Figure 5); these measurements were more pronounced after 63 days of injury. At day 33, significant decreases of 16% and 17% were found in the SCI rats for the tibial mass and the diaphyseal perimeter, respectively (P < 0.05). At day 63, the reductions were 34% in the tibial mass and 21% in the diaphyseal perimeter (P < 0.05).


Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Macroscopic changes in the tibia at 33 and 63 days after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI rats showed deficits at increasing the bone morphometric measures to varying levels, whereas reloading through passive standing (PS) reversed this loss and electrical stimulation (ES) also showed the same tendency. Asterisks (∗) and hash (#) signs indicate a significant difference (P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127270&req=5

fig5: Macroscopic changes in the tibia at 33 and 63 days after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI rats showed deficits at increasing the bone morphometric measures to varying levels, whereas reloading through passive standing (PS) reversed this loss and electrical stimulation (ES) also showed the same tendency. Asterisks (∗) and hash (#) signs indicate a significant difference (P < 0.05).
Mentions: Similar to the results observed in the femur, the tibias from the paraplegic rats also failed at increasing the morphological measurements, when compared to the weight-matched controls (Figure 5); these measurements were more pronounced after 63 days of injury. At day 33, significant decreases of 16% and 17% were found in the SCI rats for the tibial mass and the diaphyseal perimeter, respectively (P < 0.05). At day 63, the reductions were 34% in the tibial mass and 21% in the diaphyseal perimeter (P < 0.05).

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus