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Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Body mass at each time-point of the study. At day 0, there was no difference among the groups; however, at both day 33 and day 63, the spinal cord injury (SCI) rats did not gain as much weight as the Sham animals. The asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). (PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Error bars indicate standard deviation.
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fig2: Body mass at each time-point of the study. At day 0, there was no difference among the groups; however, at both day 33 and day 63, the spinal cord injury (SCI) rats did not gain as much weight as the Sham animals. The asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). (PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Error bars indicate standard deviation.

Mentions: At study entry, the rat's body mass was similar among the groups (217 ± 15 g), indicating homogeneity among the animals (P > 0.05). At day 33, we observed that the SCI animals gained weight but not in the same proportion as the control group (30% versus 101%, P < 0.0001). The failure of the SCI rats to gain as much weight as the Sham rats persisted at the 63-daytime-point (73% versus 146%, P < 0.0001, Figure 2), whereas the body mass increased by 20% and 17% in the PS and ES groups, respectively, compared to age-matched SCI animals.


Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.

Zamarioli A, Maranho DA, Butezloff MM, Moura PA, Volpon JB, Shimano AC - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Body mass at each time-point of the study. At day 0, there was no difference among the groups; however, at both day 33 and day 63, the spinal cord injury (SCI) rats did not gain as much weight as the Sham animals. The asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). (PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Error bars indicate standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127270&req=5

fig2: Body mass at each time-point of the study. At day 0, there was no difference among the groups; however, at both day 33 and day 63, the spinal cord injury (SCI) rats did not gain as much weight as the Sham animals. The asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). (PS: passive standing; ES: electrical stimulation). Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Mentions: At study entry, the rat's body mass was similar among the groups (217 ± 15 g), indicating homogeneity among the animals (P > 0.05). At day 33, we observed that the SCI animals gained weight but not in the same proportion as the control group (30% versus 101%, P < 0.0001). The failure of the SCI rats to gain as much weight as the Sham rats persisted at the 63-daytime-point (73% versus 146%, P < 0.0001, Figure 2), whereas the body mass increased by 20% and 17% in the PS and ES groups, respectively, compared to age-matched SCI animals.

Bottom Line: Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES.Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days.The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Laboratory of Bioengineering, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Pedreira de Freitas, Casa 1, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus