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Vagus nerve through α7 nAChR modulates lung infection and inflammation: models, cells, and signals.

Wu H, Li L, Su X - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI.By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung.Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unit of Respiratory Infection and Immunity, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, B104, Life Science Research Building, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China.

ABSTRACT
Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) bridges immune and nervous systems and plays pleiotropic roles in modulating inflammation in animal models by targeting different immune, proinflammatory, epithelial, endothelial, stem, and progenitor cells and signaling pathways. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating inflammatory disease. It is pathogenically heterogeneous and involves many cells and signaling pathways. Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung. Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

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The working model of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex.
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fig3: The working model of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex.

Mentions: As illustrated in Figure 3, the pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex may consist of three components: the afferent arc residing in the distal airway or alveolus; the NTS information-integrating center in the brain stem; and the efferent arc innervating the distal lung epithelial cells. Vagus nerve endings are reported to innervate the distal airway of the lung, possibly in the alveoli [70, 71] (though it is entirely unclear how efferent fibers traveling in the vagus nerve might exert influence upon the alveolar region), where varieties of sensors or PRR in the vagal afferent arc are located. Via this apparatus, mechanical, chemical, biological, and other stimuli in the alveoli can be sensed. Sensory neurons express TLR3, 4, 7, and 9, which can recognize different pathogens [72–74]. Lung neuroendocrine cells also are complex airway sensors, which are predominantly innervated by vagal afferent fibers derived from the nodose ganglion [75]. The information is transmitted via the afferent arm to NTS, a processing center, which is capable of differentiating types of infection, inflammation, or challenges. After processing, the active potentials are remitted from NTS to the alveoli via the vagal efferent arc. The vagal nerve endings could synthesize and release ACh, which in turn activates α7 nAChR in the proinflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) or epithelial cells to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB or other signaling pathways.


Vagus nerve through α7 nAChR modulates lung infection and inflammation: models, cells, and signals.

Wu H, Li L, Su X - Biomed Res Int (2014)

The working model of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127262&req=5

fig3: The working model of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex.
Mentions: As illustrated in Figure 3, the pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex may consist of three components: the afferent arc residing in the distal airway or alveolus; the NTS information-integrating center in the brain stem; and the efferent arc innervating the distal lung epithelial cells. Vagus nerve endings are reported to innervate the distal airway of the lung, possibly in the alveoli [70, 71] (though it is entirely unclear how efferent fibers traveling in the vagus nerve might exert influence upon the alveolar region), where varieties of sensors or PRR in the vagal afferent arc are located. Via this apparatus, mechanical, chemical, biological, and other stimuli in the alveoli can be sensed. Sensory neurons express TLR3, 4, 7, and 9, which can recognize different pathogens [72–74]. Lung neuroendocrine cells also are complex airway sensors, which are predominantly innervated by vagal afferent fibers derived from the nodose ganglion [75]. The information is transmitted via the afferent arm to NTS, a processing center, which is capable of differentiating types of infection, inflammation, or challenges. After processing, the active potentials are remitted from NTS to the alveoli via the vagal efferent arc. The vagal nerve endings could synthesize and release ACh, which in turn activates α7 nAChR in the proinflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) or epithelial cells to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB or other signaling pathways.

Bottom Line: Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI.By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung.Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unit of Respiratory Infection and Immunity, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, B104, Life Science Research Building, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China.

ABSTRACT
Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) bridges immune and nervous systems and plays pleiotropic roles in modulating inflammation in animal models by targeting different immune, proinflammatory, epithelial, endothelial, stem, and progenitor cells and signaling pathways. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating inflammatory disease. It is pathogenically heterogeneous and involves many cells and signaling pathways. Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung. Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus