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Field clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of the zoonotic canine infection by Dirofilaria repens.

Di Cesare A, Braun G, Di Giulio E, Paoletti B, Aquilino V, Bartolini R, La Torre F, Meloni S, Drake J, Pandolfi F, Avolio S, Traversa D - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments.The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog.The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Piazza A, Moro, 45, 64100 Teramo, Italy. angdicesare@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs.

Methods: This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog.

Results: A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs.

Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the prevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in endemic areas.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Knott’s modified method: microfilaria ofDirofilaria repens.
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Fig2: Knott’s modified method: microfilaria ofDirofilaria repens.

Mentions: Overall, 116 and 117 dogs were enrolled in T1 and T2 at Site A, while 8 dogs were recruited in each treatment group at Site B. At site A, 10 dogs continued the study after adoption by private owners in the region of Abruzzo, and 34 animals continued the study after a transfer from site A to Marche region, northward from Abruzzo region. At site B, 2 privately owned dogs moved with their owners, one to the region Lazio and one to the region Apulia, and continued the study (Figure 1). The study was completed by 219 dogs (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn either because they scored positive for D. repens (only for T2 group), i.e. 6 dogs, 4 at both microscopy (Figure 2) and PCR examinations and 2 only at the PCRs, or for other reasons (i.e. 24 dogs). The discrepancy in the microscopic and PCR results for T2 dogs which scored positive for D. repens during the study could be explained by a number of circulating mff lower than the sensitivity threshold of the Knott’s test.Figure 1


Field clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of the zoonotic canine infection by Dirofilaria repens.

Di Cesare A, Braun G, Di Giulio E, Paoletti B, Aquilino V, Bartolini R, La Torre F, Meloni S, Drake J, Pandolfi F, Avolio S, Traversa D - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Knott’s modified method: microfilaria ofDirofilaria repens.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127188&req=5

Fig2: Knott’s modified method: microfilaria ofDirofilaria repens.
Mentions: Overall, 116 and 117 dogs were enrolled in T1 and T2 at Site A, while 8 dogs were recruited in each treatment group at Site B. At site A, 10 dogs continued the study after adoption by private owners in the region of Abruzzo, and 34 animals continued the study after a transfer from site A to Marche region, northward from Abruzzo region. At site B, 2 privately owned dogs moved with their owners, one to the region Lazio and one to the region Apulia, and continued the study (Figure 1). The study was completed by 219 dogs (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn either because they scored positive for D. repens (only for T2 group), i.e. 6 dogs, 4 at both microscopy (Figure 2) and PCR examinations and 2 only at the PCRs, or for other reasons (i.e. 24 dogs). The discrepancy in the microscopic and PCR results for T2 dogs which scored positive for D. repens during the study could be explained by a number of circulating mff lower than the sensitivity threshold of the Knott’s test.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments.The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog.The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Piazza A, Moro, 45, 64100 Teramo, Italy. angdicesare@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs.

Methods: This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog.

Results: A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs.

Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the prevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in endemic areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus