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Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Cavallo A, Heyes C, Becchio C, Bird G, Catmur C - Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse.Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse.By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Psicologia, Centro di Scienza Cognitiva, Turin, Italy, All Souls College, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 4AL, UK, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK, MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London SE5 8AF, UK, and Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.

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Example of experimental procedure for TMS sessions. A resting hand (A) was shown for a variable delay (from 800 to 2800 ms) in a prone position, vertically oriented. Following the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions (B, index abduction) was presented for 960 ms and was followed by a fixation cross (C) lasting 7240 ms. During the abduction action, the TMS pulse was delivered at one of five (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) different timepoints after action onset. The participant’s right arm was placed in a horizontal orientation across their body (D) and was covered by a screen such that it was not visible to the participant.
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nst085-F1: Example of experimental procedure for TMS sessions. A resting hand (A) was shown for a variable delay (from 800 to 2800 ms) in a prone position, vertically oriented. Following the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions (B, index abduction) was presented for 960 ms and was followed by a fixation cross (C) lasting 7240 ms. During the abduction action, the TMS pulse was delivered at one of five (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) different timepoints after action onset. The participant’s right arm was placed in a horizontal orientation across their body (D) and was covered by a screen such that it was not visible to the participant.

Mentions: The experimental stimuli comprised action sequences created from two static photographs of the dorsal view of the right hand of a female. An apparent motion effect was obtained by presenting single frames of a right hand at rest followed by the endpoint of either an index or little finger abduction. On each trial, the hand of the model was shown in a prone position, vertically oriented, with fingers toward the top of the screen. Following a variable delay (800–2800 ms) after presentation of the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions was presented for 960 ms (Figure 1), after which it was replaced by a white fixation cross on a black background for 7240 ms.Fig. 1


Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Cavallo A, Heyes C, Becchio C, Bird G, Catmur C - Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (2013)

Example of experimental procedure for TMS sessions. A resting hand (A) was shown for a variable delay (from 800 to 2800 ms) in a prone position, vertically oriented. Following the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions (B, index abduction) was presented for 960 ms and was followed by a fixation cross (C) lasting 7240 ms. During the abduction action, the TMS pulse was delivered at one of five (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) different timepoints after action onset. The participant’s right arm was placed in a horizontal orientation across their body (D) and was covered by a screen such that it was not visible to the participant.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127010&req=5

nst085-F1: Example of experimental procedure for TMS sessions. A resting hand (A) was shown for a variable delay (from 800 to 2800 ms) in a prone position, vertically oriented. Following the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions (B, index abduction) was presented for 960 ms and was followed by a fixation cross (C) lasting 7240 ms. During the abduction action, the TMS pulse was delivered at one of five (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) different timepoints after action onset. The participant’s right arm was placed in a horizontal orientation across their body (D) and was covered by a screen such that it was not visible to the participant.
Mentions: The experimental stimuli comprised action sequences created from two static photographs of the dorsal view of the right hand of a female. An apparent motion effect was obtained by presenting single frames of a right hand at rest followed by the endpoint of either an index or little finger abduction. On each trial, the hand of the model was shown in a prone position, vertically oriented, with fingers toward the top of the screen. Following a variable delay (800–2800 ms) after presentation of the resting hand, the endpoint of one of the two abduction actions was presented for 960 ms (Figure 1), after which it was replaced by a white fixation cross on a black background for 7240 ms.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse.Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse.By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Psicologia, Centro di Scienza Cognitiva, Turin, Italy, All Souls College, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 4AL, UK, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK, MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London SE5 8AF, UK, and Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.

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Related in: MedlinePlus