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Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

Koniecko I, Staniszewska M, Falkowska L, Burska D, Kielczewska J, Jasinska A - Water Air Soil Pollut (2014)

Bottom Line: In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity.In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn.The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

No MeSH data available.


Structural composition of a OP and b NP
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Fig6: Structural composition of a OP and b NP

Mentions: Another factor influencing the occurrence of higher concentrations of OP than NP is OP’s greater residence time in the environment. OP has a different, more branched out, hydrocarbon chain structure than NP (Pignatello 1998) (Fig. 6). Owing to that, its residence time in the environment is longer as the decomposition process is slower. The sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk are often short in oxygen, which can result in the breakdown of alkylphenol etoxylates becoming decelerated (Falkowska et al. 1993). At stations situated in deeper water, OP concentrations were nevertheless lower than in the coastal area. Despite its long residence time, OP was not strongly connected to sediment. This is confirmed by a lack of correlation between OP concentration and carbon forms (TC, OC and BC). However, such correlations were observed for 4-nonylphenol (0.76 > r > 0.96, p < 0.03). According to Heinis et al. (1999), the half-life time for 4-nonylphenol in anaerobic conditions is 66 days, while 401 days are required for a complete breakdown of this compound and 95 % of its removal. When oxygen is involved, the decomposition of 4-nonylphenol occurs more rapidly, with nearly 50 % of this compound decomposing within 10 days (Ying et al. 2003). Having a linear hydrocarbon chain structure, 4-nonylphenol becomes more easily sorbed onto sediment particles (Fig. 6). This compound is characterised by higher values of Ko/c coefficient (38.90 thousand dm3 · kg−1) and Ko/w coefficient (4.48) than is the case with 4-tert-octylphenol (Ko/w = 4.12, Ko/c = 18.20 thousand dm3 · kg−1).Fig. 6


Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

Koniecko I, Staniszewska M, Falkowska L, Burska D, Kielczewska J, Jasinska A - Water Air Soil Pollut (2014)

Structural composition of a OP and b NP
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127005&req=5

Fig6: Structural composition of a OP and b NP
Mentions: Another factor influencing the occurrence of higher concentrations of OP than NP is OP’s greater residence time in the environment. OP has a different, more branched out, hydrocarbon chain structure than NP (Pignatello 1998) (Fig. 6). Owing to that, its residence time in the environment is longer as the decomposition process is slower. The sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk are often short in oxygen, which can result in the breakdown of alkylphenol etoxylates becoming decelerated (Falkowska et al. 1993). At stations situated in deeper water, OP concentrations were nevertheless lower than in the coastal area. Despite its long residence time, OP was not strongly connected to sediment. This is confirmed by a lack of correlation between OP concentration and carbon forms (TC, OC and BC). However, such correlations were observed for 4-nonylphenol (0.76 > r > 0.96, p < 0.03). According to Heinis et al. (1999), the half-life time for 4-nonylphenol in anaerobic conditions is 66 days, while 401 days are required for a complete breakdown of this compound and 95 % of its removal. When oxygen is involved, the decomposition of 4-nonylphenol occurs more rapidly, with nearly 50 % of this compound decomposing within 10 days (Ying et al. 2003). Having a linear hydrocarbon chain structure, 4-nonylphenol becomes more easily sorbed onto sediment particles (Fig. 6). This compound is characterised by higher values of Ko/c coefficient (38.90 thousand dm3 · kg−1) and Ko/w coefficient (4.48) than is the case with 4-tert-octylphenol (Ko/w = 4.12, Ko/c = 18.20 thousand dm3 · kg−1).Fig. 6

Bottom Line: In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity.In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn.The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

No MeSH data available.