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Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

Koniecko I, Staniszewska M, Falkowska L, Burska D, Kielczewska J, Jasinska A - Water Air Soil Pollut (2014)

Bottom Line: In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity.In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn.The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

No MeSH data available.


Seasonal changes in 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) in sediments from river stations ST1, ST2, ST6 in a spring, b summer and c autumn
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig3: Seasonal changes in 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) in sediments from river stations ST1, ST2, ST6 in a spring, b summer and c autumn

Mentions: In the case of 4-tert-octylphenol, its mean concentrations in sediment from estuary stations (A) (7.58 ng g−1dw) were higher than mean concentrations found in sediments from open water stations (C) (5.31 ng g−1 dw) (Table 3). Similar results were obtained by Zhang et al. (2011), indicating that a significant load of surface active agents containing NP and OP was introduced into the sea via river transportation. In summer, the differences in OP and NP concentrations between the stations of the coastal zone (B) and the open water stations (C) were even more pronounced due to higher water temperature. In that period, the breakdown of alkylphenol etoxylates in the coastal zone occurs more rapidly and can result in an increase in NP and OP concentrations in sediment collected in river estuaries. On the other hand, in deeper waters, where the temperature is lower, etoxylate decomposition may be slower or limited. This is confirmed by results found in literature from around the world. Manzano et al. (1999) discovered that alkylphenol etoxylate breakdown takes place more rapidly at 22.5 °C than at 13 °C. This was also observed during tests carried out in the Gulf of Gdansk (Fig. 3) as the highest OP and NP concentrations occurred in summer (Fig. 3b). In spring (Fig. 3a), there was probably a second factor which effected an increase in alkylphenol concentrations in river estuary sediment, namely the increased river dynamics of that season causing the resuspension of organic matter containing NP and OP.Fig. 3


Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

Koniecko I, Staniszewska M, Falkowska L, Burska D, Kielczewska J, Jasinska A - Water Air Soil Pollut (2014)

Seasonal changes in 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) in sediments from river stations ST1, ST2, ST6 in a spring, b summer and c autumn
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127005&req=5

Fig3: Seasonal changes in 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) in sediments from river stations ST1, ST2, ST6 in a spring, b summer and c autumn
Mentions: In the case of 4-tert-octylphenol, its mean concentrations in sediment from estuary stations (A) (7.58 ng g−1dw) were higher than mean concentrations found in sediments from open water stations (C) (5.31 ng g−1 dw) (Table 3). Similar results were obtained by Zhang et al. (2011), indicating that a significant load of surface active agents containing NP and OP was introduced into the sea via river transportation. In summer, the differences in OP and NP concentrations between the stations of the coastal zone (B) and the open water stations (C) were even more pronounced due to higher water temperature. In that period, the breakdown of alkylphenol etoxylates in the coastal zone occurs more rapidly and can result in an increase in NP and OP concentrations in sediment collected in river estuaries. On the other hand, in deeper waters, where the temperature is lower, etoxylate decomposition may be slower or limited. This is confirmed by results found in literature from around the world. Manzano et al. (1999) discovered that alkylphenol etoxylate breakdown takes place more rapidly at 22.5 °C than at 13 °C. This was also observed during tests carried out in the Gulf of Gdansk (Fig. 3) as the highest OP and NP concentrations occurred in summer (Fig. 3b). In spring (Fig. 3a), there was probably a second factor which effected an increase in alkylphenol concentrations in river estuary sediment, namely the increased river dynamics of that season causing the resuspension of organic matter containing NP and OP.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity.In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn.The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols.

No MeSH data available.