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Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement.

Marciano MA, Garcia RB, Cavenago BC, Minotti PG, Midena RZ, GuimarĂ£es BM, Ordinola-Zapata R, Duarte MA - J Appl Oral Sci (2014 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05).The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement.

Material and methods: White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p<0.05).

Results: The results showed an increase of the pH level after 15 days, followed by a slight increase after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. There were no significant statistical differences among the groups (p>0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

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(A-C) Group 1 (0%WPC); (D-F) Group 2 (15%WPC); (G-I) Group 3 (20%WPC); (J-L) Group4 (30%WPC); (M-O) Group 5 (50%WPC). At 15 days, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate,moderate with predominance of macrophage (black arrow) is observed, presence ofgiant multinuclear cell (red arrow), areas with Portland cement particles involvedwith giant cells (black circle) and a mild presence of fiber connective tissue(asterisk) in all groups. At 30 days, a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrateand a discrete increase in fiber connective tissue (asterisk) in comparison withthe 15 days period were observed. Futhermore, at 30 days the presence ofmacrophage cells (black arrow) is predominant. Areas with Portland cementparticles involved with giant cells are still present in this period (blackcircle). At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory response is mild with isolatedmacrophage-like cell (black arrow) and giant cells (red arrow). The presence offiber connective tissue related to the repair process is evident (asterisk)
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f01: (A-C) Group 1 (0%WPC); (D-F) Group 2 (15%WPC); (G-I) Group 3 (20%WPC); (J-L) Group4 (30%WPC); (M-O) Group 5 (50%WPC). At 15 days, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate,moderate with predominance of macrophage (black arrow) is observed, presence ofgiant multinuclear cell (red arrow), areas with Portland cement particles involvedwith giant cells (black circle) and a mild presence of fiber connective tissue(asterisk) in all groups. At 30 days, a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrateand a discrete increase in fiber connective tissue (asterisk) in comparison withthe 15 days period were observed. Futhermore, at 30 days the presence ofmacrophage cells (black arrow) is predominant. Areas with Portland cementparticles involved with giant cells are still present in this period (blackcircle). At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory response is mild with isolatedmacrophage-like cell (black arrow) and giant cells (red arrow). The presence offiber connective tissue related to the repair process is evident (asterisk)

Mentions: The results and significant statistical differences for the pH level and inflammatoryinfiltrate are represented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Considering the initial assessmentof water, an increase of the pH level was observed after 15 days, followed by a slightincrease after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. A significant increase of the pHlevel was observed from 15 to 30 days for all the tested cements (p<0.05). Acomparison among the groups in each period revealed no statistically significantdifferences (p>0.05). Representative histological images of each group (horizontally)at 15, 30 and 60 days (vertically) (hematoxylin and eosin staining, 400x magnification)are presented in Figure 1. The inflammatoryinfiltrate was chronic, moderate at 15 days with the predominance of macrophage-like andmultinucleated giant cells for all groups. At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory responsewas mild with isolated macrophage-like and multinucleated giant cells. No statisticallysignificant differences were found for the inflammatory infiltrate among the groups ineach experimental period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of theinflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).


Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement.

Marciano MA, Garcia RB, Cavenago BC, Minotti PG, Midena RZ, GuimarĂ£es BM, Ordinola-Zapata R, Duarte MA - J Appl Oral Sci (2014 Jul-Aug)

(A-C) Group 1 (0%WPC); (D-F) Group 2 (15%WPC); (G-I) Group 3 (20%WPC); (J-L) Group4 (30%WPC); (M-O) Group 5 (50%WPC). At 15 days, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate,moderate with predominance of macrophage (black arrow) is observed, presence ofgiant multinuclear cell (red arrow), areas with Portland cement particles involvedwith giant cells (black circle) and a mild presence of fiber connective tissue(asterisk) in all groups. At 30 days, a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrateand a discrete increase in fiber connective tissue (asterisk) in comparison withthe 15 days period were observed. Futhermore, at 30 days the presence ofmacrophage cells (black arrow) is predominant. Areas with Portland cementparticles involved with giant cells are still present in this period (blackcircle). At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory response is mild with isolatedmacrophage-like cell (black arrow) and giant cells (red arrow). The presence offiber connective tissue related to the repair process is evident (asterisk)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126821&req=5

f01: (A-C) Group 1 (0%WPC); (D-F) Group 2 (15%WPC); (G-I) Group 3 (20%WPC); (J-L) Group4 (30%WPC); (M-O) Group 5 (50%WPC). At 15 days, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate,moderate with predominance of macrophage (black arrow) is observed, presence ofgiant multinuclear cell (red arrow), areas with Portland cement particles involvedwith giant cells (black circle) and a mild presence of fiber connective tissue(asterisk) in all groups. At 30 days, a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrateand a discrete increase in fiber connective tissue (asterisk) in comparison withthe 15 days period were observed. Futhermore, at 30 days the presence ofmacrophage cells (black arrow) is predominant. Areas with Portland cementparticles involved with giant cells are still present in this period (blackcircle). At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory response is mild with isolatedmacrophage-like cell (black arrow) and giant cells (red arrow). The presence offiber connective tissue related to the repair process is evident (asterisk)
Mentions: The results and significant statistical differences for the pH level and inflammatoryinfiltrate are represented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Considering the initial assessmentof water, an increase of the pH level was observed after 15 days, followed by a slightincrease after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. A significant increase of the pHlevel was observed from 15 to 30 days for all the tested cements (p<0.05). Acomparison among the groups in each period revealed no statistically significantdifferences (p>0.05). Representative histological images of each group (horizontally)at 15, 30 and 60 days (vertically) (hematoxylin and eosin staining, 400x magnification)are presented in Figure 1. The inflammatoryinfiltrate was chronic, moderate at 15 days with the predominance of macrophage-like andmultinucleated giant cells for all groups. At 60 days, the chronic inflammatory responsewas mild with isolated macrophage-like and multinucleated giant cells. No statisticallysignificant differences were found for the inflammatory infiltrate among the groups ineach experimental period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of theinflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).

Bottom Line: For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05).The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement.

Material and methods: White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p<0.05).

Results: The results showed an increase of the pH level after 15 days, followed by a slight increase after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. There were no significant statistical differences among the groups (p>0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus