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Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

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Analysis of functional recovery and lesion size following SCI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Functional recovery was quantified for 28 days using BBB scores (A), Ratwalk gait analysis (B) and ladder walking (C) (n = 7 or 8/group). Semi-quantification of lesion size from toluidine blue stained sections (D), and representative images of GFAP and β-III tubulin immunoreactivity (E) are shown at 28 days following SCI (n = 4/group), scale  = 400 µm. Data are mean ± SEM, * indicates significant differences from pre-injury (P≤0.05).
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pone-0104565-g005: Analysis of functional recovery and lesion size following SCI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Functional recovery was quantified for 28 days using BBB scores (A), Ratwalk gait analysis (B) and ladder walking (C) (n = 7 or 8/group). Semi-quantification of lesion size from toluidine blue stained sections (D), and representative images of GFAP and β-III tubulin immunoreactivity (E) are shown at 28 days following SCI (n = 4/group), scale  = 400 µm. Data are mean ± SEM, * indicates significant differences from pre-injury (P≤0.05).

Mentions: Analysis of functional recovery following moderate contusion SCI and R/NIR-IT was conducted, assessing open field locomotion (BBB), quantitative gait analysis (Ratwalk) and ladder walking. Rats were scored for their performance on the BBB test at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following SCI [56]. All animals exhibited a steep recovery from day 0 to 7 and were able to weight support by day 14 (BBB score of 9). At day 21, the scores began to plateau and the average score across all groups was 10. At day 28 the average score for all groups was 11 - characterised by frequent to consistent weight-supported plantar steps and no forelimb - hindlimb coordination. There were no significant differences in BBB scores of rats treated with either wavelength of R/NIR-IT compared to control rats (Fig. 5A, F = 0.5, dF = 2, P>0.05). Although no significance was recorded, it is important to note that even though the applied Kruskal-Wallis test is an analysis of variance for non-parametric data, the BBB scale is neither linear nor exponential. Higher BBB values represent a score comprised of increasing numbers of variables that are often unrelated to previous (lower) scores. Careful interpretation should always be exercised when equating biological significance with statistical significance in such cases [65].


Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Analysis of functional recovery and lesion size following SCI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Functional recovery was quantified for 28 days using BBB scores (A), Ratwalk gait analysis (B) and ladder walking (C) (n = 7 or 8/group). Semi-quantification of lesion size from toluidine blue stained sections (D), and representative images of GFAP and β-III tubulin immunoreactivity (E) are shown at 28 days following SCI (n = 4/group), scale  = 400 µm. Data are mean ± SEM, * indicates significant differences from pre-injury (P≤0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126771&req=5

pone-0104565-g005: Analysis of functional recovery and lesion size following SCI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Functional recovery was quantified for 28 days using BBB scores (A), Ratwalk gait analysis (B) and ladder walking (C) (n = 7 or 8/group). Semi-quantification of lesion size from toluidine blue stained sections (D), and representative images of GFAP and β-III tubulin immunoreactivity (E) are shown at 28 days following SCI (n = 4/group), scale  = 400 µm. Data are mean ± SEM, * indicates significant differences from pre-injury (P≤0.05).
Mentions: Analysis of functional recovery following moderate contusion SCI and R/NIR-IT was conducted, assessing open field locomotion (BBB), quantitative gait analysis (Ratwalk) and ladder walking. Rats were scored for their performance on the BBB test at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following SCI [56]. All animals exhibited a steep recovery from day 0 to 7 and were able to weight support by day 14 (BBB score of 9). At day 21, the scores began to plateau and the average score across all groups was 10. At day 28 the average score for all groups was 11 - characterised by frequent to consistent weight-supported plantar steps and no forelimb - hindlimb coordination. There were no significant differences in BBB scores of rats treated with either wavelength of R/NIR-IT compared to control rats (Fig. 5A, F = 0.5, dF = 2, P>0.05). Although no significance was recorded, it is important to note that even though the applied Kruskal-Wallis test is an analysis of variance for non-parametric data, the BBB scale is neither linear nor exponential. Higher BBB values represent a score comprised of increasing numbers of variables that are often unrelated to previous (lower) scores. Careful interpretation should always be exercised when equating biological significance with statistical significance in such cases [65].

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus