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Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

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Motor and sensory function as well as lesion size following fluid percussion TBI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Mean ± SEM length of time animals remained on a rotarod (A), and contralateral vs ipsilateral latency (B) were quantified as measures of motor and sensory function respectively over the 7 days following TBI. Lesion volumes were also quantified at 7 days following injury (C): there were no significant differences relative to control at each time point (P>0.05), n = 5 or 6/group.
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pone-0104565-g004: Motor and sensory function as well as lesion size following fluid percussion TBI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Mean ± SEM length of time animals remained on a rotarod (A), and contralateral vs ipsilateral latency (B) were quantified as measures of motor and sensory function respectively over the 7 days following TBI. Lesion volumes were also quantified at 7 days following injury (C): there were no significant differences relative to control at each time point (P>0.05), n = 5 or 6/group.

Mentions: The fluid percussion model was used to assess efficacy of 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT at improving motor and sensory outcomes as well as decreasing lesion volume following TBI. Motor ability of injured rats was assessed daily by quantifying the length of time rats could remain on a rotarod. As expected [64], there was a substantial decrease in rotarod score relative to pre-injury in control animals (significant for the first 3 days following injury, P≤0.05), which gradually improved during the 7 days following injury (Fig. 4A). R/NIR-IT at 670 nm or 830 nm did not affect motor outcomes during the 7 days following TBI, relative to control (F = 0.5, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4A). Sensory ability was assessed using the bilateral asymmetry test as has been described [53], at 1, 3 and 7 days following injury, compared to pre-injury performance. However, somewhat unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in contralateral vs ipsilateral latency in control (sham treated) rats when comparing pre- and post-injury outcomes for the first 7 days after injury (F = 0.4, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig 4B). Sensory abilities in rats treated with R/NIR-IT at 670 nm or 830 nm were not different to control rats or pre-injury levels (F = 0.4, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4B). Lesion volume at 7 days following TBI was also not altered by R/NIR-IT at either 670 nm or 830 nm (F = 0.1, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4C).


Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Motor and sensory function as well as lesion size following fluid percussion TBI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Mean ± SEM length of time animals remained on a rotarod (A), and contralateral vs ipsilateral latency (B) were quantified as measures of motor and sensory function respectively over the 7 days following TBI. Lesion volumes were also quantified at 7 days following injury (C): there were no significant differences relative to control at each time point (P>0.05), n = 5 or 6/group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126771&req=5

pone-0104565-g004: Motor and sensory function as well as lesion size following fluid percussion TBI and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Mean ± SEM length of time animals remained on a rotarod (A), and contralateral vs ipsilateral latency (B) were quantified as measures of motor and sensory function respectively over the 7 days following TBI. Lesion volumes were also quantified at 7 days following injury (C): there were no significant differences relative to control at each time point (P>0.05), n = 5 or 6/group.
Mentions: The fluid percussion model was used to assess efficacy of 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT at improving motor and sensory outcomes as well as decreasing lesion volume following TBI. Motor ability of injured rats was assessed daily by quantifying the length of time rats could remain on a rotarod. As expected [64], there was a substantial decrease in rotarod score relative to pre-injury in control animals (significant for the first 3 days following injury, P≤0.05), which gradually improved during the 7 days following injury (Fig. 4A). R/NIR-IT at 670 nm or 830 nm did not affect motor outcomes during the 7 days following TBI, relative to control (F = 0.5, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4A). Sensory ability was assessed using the bilateral asymmetry test as has been described [53], at 1, 3 and 7 days following injury, compared to pre-injury performance. However, somewhat unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in contralateral vs ipsilateral latency in control (sham treated) rats when comparing pre- and post-injury outcomes for the first 7 days after injury (F = 0.4, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig 4B). Sensory abilities in rats treated with R/NIR-IT at 670 nm or 830 nm were not different to control rats or pre-injury levels (F = 0.4, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4B). Lesion volume at 7 days following TBI was also not altered by R/NIR-IT at either 670 nm or 830 nm (F = 0.1, dF = 2, P>0.05) (Fig. 4C).

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus