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Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

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Visual behaviour, reactive species, antioxidant enzymes and indicators of oxidative damage 7 days following partial optic nerve transection and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Number of responses in the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex task (A) were quantified as smooth pursuits (black) or fast resets (grey), n = 12/group. Mean ± SEM DHE fluorescence (B), MnSOD (C), HO-1 (D), GPx1 (E), 3NT (F), 8OHDG (G) or HNE (H) immunoreactivity in ventral ON vulnerable to secondary degeneration were semi-quantified: *indicates significant differences (P≤0.05), n = 6/group.
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pone-0104565-g002: Visual behaviour, reactive species, antioxidant enzymes and indicators of oxidative damage 7 days following partial optic nerve transection and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Number of responses in the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex task (A) were quantified as smooth pursuits (black) or fast resets (grey), n = 12/group. Mean ± SEM DHE fluorescence (B), MnSOD (C), HO-1 (D), GPx1 (E), 3NT (F), 8OHDG (G) or HNE (H) immunoreactivity in ventral ON vulnerable to secondary degeneration were semi-quantified: *indicates significant differences (P≤0.05), n = 6/group.

Mentions: Partial dorsal optic nerve transection leaves the remaining ventral optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration, and provides a model to assess efficacy of therapeutic strategies to prevent spreading damage following injury to the CNS [59]. Analysis of functional behaviour following partial optic nerve transection and R/NIR-IT was assessed using the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex at 7 days after injury. R/NIR-IT delivered at 670 nm led to a significantly increased number of smooth pursuits and fast reflexes compared to numbers of responses by injured, control animals (F = 12.8 and 3.9 respectively, dF = 2, P≤0.05), indicating improved visual function and confirming previous findings [22]. R/NIR-IT at 830 nm resulted in significantly more smooth pursuits compared to control (F = 12.8, dF = 2, P≤0.05), but there was no significant improvement in the number of fast resets (F = 3.9, dF = 2, P>0.05, Fig. 2A). There were no significant differences between either numbers of smooth pursuits or fast reset responses by rats treated with 670 nm R/NIR-IT, compared to rats treated with 830 nm R/NIR-IT (P>0.05) (Fig. 2A).


Differential effects of 670 and 830 nm red near infrared irradiation therapy: a comparative study of optic nerve injury, retinal degeneration, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury.

Giacci MK, Wheeler L, Lovett S, Dishington E, Majda B, Bartlett CA, Thornton E, Harford-Wright E, Leonard A, Vink R, Harvey AR, Provis J, Dunlop SA, Hart NS, Hodgetts S, Natoli R, Van Den Heuvel C, Fitzgerald M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Visual behaviour, reactive species, antioxidant enzymes and indicators of oxidative damage 7 days following partial optic nerve transection and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Number of responses in the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex task (A) were quantified as smooth pursuits (black) or fast resets (grey), n = 12/group. Mean ± SEM DHE fluorescence (B), MnSOD (C), HO-1 (D), GPx1 (E), 3NT (F), 8OHDG (G) or HNE (H) immunoreactivity in ventral ON vulnerable to secondary degeneration were semi-quantified: *indicates significant differences (P≤0.05), n = 6/group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126771&req=5

pone-0104565-g002: Visual behaviour, reactive species, antioxidant enzymes and indicators of oxidative damage 7 days following partial optic nerve transection and treatment with 670/NIR-IT compared to sham treated control.Number of responses in the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex task (A) were quantified as smooth pursuits (black) or fast resets (grey), n = 12/group. Mean ± SEM DHE fluorescence (B), MnSOD (C), HO-1 (D), GPx1 (E), 3NT (F), 8OHDG (G) or HNE (H) immunoreactivity in ventral ON vulnerable to secondary degeneration were semi-quantified: *indicates significant differences (P≤0.05), n = 6/group.
Mentions: Partial dorsal optic nerve transection leaves the remaining ventral optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration, and provides a model to assess efficacy of therapeutic strategies to prevent spreading damage following injury to the CNS [59]. Analysis of functional behaviour following partial optic nerve transection and R/NIR-IT was assessed using the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex at 7 days after injury. R/NIR-IT delivered at 670 nm led to a significantly increased number of smooth pursuits and fast reflexes compared to numbers of responses by injured, control animals (F = 12.8 and 3.9 respectively, dF = 2, P≤0.05), indicating improved visual function and confirming previous findings [22]. R/NIR-IT at 830 nm resulted in significantly more smooth pursuits compared to control (F = 12.8, dF = 2, P≤0.05), but there was no significant improvement in the number of fast resets (F = 3.9, dF = 2, P>0.05, Fig. 2A). There were no significant differences between either numbers of smooth pursuits or fast reset responses by rats treated with 670 nm R/NIR-IT, compared to rats treated with 830 nm R/NIR-IT (P>0.05) (Fig. 2A).

Bottom Line: Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model.Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05).Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P ≤ 0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P ≤ 0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R/NIR-IT individually for different CNS injury types.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus