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Beneficial effect of isoniazid preventive therapy and antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in people living with HIV in Ethiopia.

Yirdaw KD, Jerene D, Gashu Z, Edginton ME, Kumar AM, Letamo Y, Feleke B, Teklu AM, Zewdu S, Weiss B, Ruff A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Combining ART and IPT had a more profound effect.IPT was found to be effective in reducing TB incidence, independently and with concomitant ART, under programme conditions in resource-limited settings.Scaling up and strengthening IPT service in addition to ART can have beneficial effect in reducing TB burden among PLHIV in settings with high TB/HIV burden.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Department, Johns Hopkins University TSEHAI Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Background: IPT with or without concomitant administration of ART is a proven intervention to prevent tuberculosis among PLHIV. However, there are few data on the routine implementation of this intervention and its effectiveness in settings with limited resources.

Objectives: To measure the level of uptake and effectiveness of IPT in reducing tuberculosis incidence in a cohort of PLHIV enrolled into HIV care between 2007 and 2010 in five hospitals in southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of electronic patient database was done. The independent effects of no intervention, "IPT-only," "IPT-before-ART," "IPT-and-ART started simultaneously," "ART-only," and "IPT-after-ART" on TB incidence were measured. Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to assess association of treatment categories with TB incidence.

Results: Of 7,097 patients, 867 were excluded because they were transferred-in; a further 823 (12%) were excluded from the study because they were either identified to have TB through screening (292 patients) or were on TB treatment (531). Among the remaining 5,407 patients observed, IPT had been initiated for 39% of eligible patients. Children, male sex, advanced disease, and those in Pre-ART were less likely to be initiated on IPT. The overall TB incidence was 2.6 per 100 person-years. As compared to those with no intervention, use of "IPT-only" (aHR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.19-0.66) and "ART-only" (aHR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.24-0.43) were associated with significant reduction in TB incidence rate. Combining ART and IPT had a more profound effect. Starting IPT-before-ART (aHR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.08-0.42) or simultaneously with ART (aHR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.10-0.42) provided further reduction of TB at ∼ 80%.

Conclusions: IPT was found to be effective in reducing TB incidence, independently and with concomitant ART, under programme conditions in resource-limited settings. The level of IPT provision and effectiveness in reducing TB was encouraging in the study setting. Scaling up and strengthening IPT service in addition to ART can have beneficial effect in reducing TB burden among PLHIV in settings with high TB/HIV burden.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cohort profile of study population, SNNP region, Ethiopia, September 2007 to August 2010.Of 7,097 patients enrolled in chronic HIV care, 5,407 were eligible for analysis contributing a total of 11,290 PY of follow-up. These were further classified into six treatment categories based on the combination of treatment received, IPT and/or ART, as well as the timing of IPT initiation with respect to ART. There were 295 incident TB cases diagnosed in the study period. IPT-Isoniazid Preventive Therapy; ART-antiretroviral therapy; TB-Tuberculosis; HIV-Human Immunodeficiency virus; PY-person year. * ‘No IPT NO ART’ group is equivalent to no intervention group.
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pone-0104557-g001: Cohort profile of study population, SNNP region, Ethiopia, September 2007 to August 2010.Of 7,097 patients enrolled in chronic HIV care, 5,407 were eligible for analysis contributing a total of 11,290 PY of follow-up. These were further classified into six treatment categories based on the combination of treatment received, IPT and/or ART, as well as the timing of IPT initiation with respect to ART. There were 295 incident TB cases diagnosed in the study period. IPT-Isoniazid Preventive Therapy; ART-antiretroviral therapy; TB-Tuberculosis; HIV-Human Immunodeficiency virus; PY-person year. * ‘No IPT NO ART’ group is equivalent to no intervention group.

Mentions: Of the 7097 patients, 867 were excluded because they were transferred in; a further 823 (12%) were excluded from the study because they were either identified to have TB through screening (292 patients) or were on TB treatment (531). Thus, there were 5407 patients studied. (Figure 1)


Beneficial effect of isoniazid preventive therapy and antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in people living with HIV in Ethiopia.

Yirdaw KD, Jerene D, Gashu Z, Edginton ME, Kumar AM, Letamo Y, Feleke B, Teklu AM, Zewdu S, Weiss B, Ruff A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cohort profile of study population, SNNP region, Ethiopia, September 2007 to August 2010.Of 7,097 patients enrolled in chronic HIV care, 5,407 were eligible for analysis contributing a total of 11,290 PY of follow-up. These were further classified into six treatment categories based on the combination of treatment received, IPT and/or ART, as well as the timing of IPT initiation with respect to ART. There were 295 incident TB cases diagnosed in the study period. IPT-Isoniazid Preventive Therapy; ART-antiretroviral therapy; TB-Tuberculosis; HIV-Human Immunodeficiency virus; PY-person year. * ‘No IPT NO ART’ group is equivalent to no intervention group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126726&req=5

pone-0104557-g001: Cohort profile of study population, SNNP region, Ethiopia, September 2007 to August 2010.Of 7,097 patients enrolled in chronic HIV care, 5,407 were eligible for analysis contributing a total of 11,290 PY of follow-up. These were further classified into six treatment categories based on the combination of treatment received, IPT and/or ART, as well as the timing of IPT initiation with respect to ART. There were 295 incident TB cases diagnosed in the study period. IPT-Isoniazid Preventive Therapy; ART-antiretroviral therapy; TB-Tuberculosis; HIV-Human Immunodeficiency virus; PY-person year. * ‘No IPT NO ART’ group is equivalent to no intervention group.
Mentions: Of the 7097 patients, 867 were excluded because they were transferred in; a further 823 (12%) were excluded from the study because they were either identified to have TB through screening (292 patients) or were on TB treatment (531). Thus, there were 5407 patients studied. (Figure 1)

Bottom Line: Combining ART and IPT had a more profound effect.IPT was found to be effective in reducing TB incidence, independently and with concomitant ART, under programme conditions in resource-limited settings.Scaling up and strengthening IPT service in addition to ART can have beneficial effect in reducing TB burden among PLHIV in settings with high TB/HIV burden.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Department, Johns Hopkins University TSEHAI Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Background: IPT with or without concomitant administration of ART is a proven intervention to prevent tuberculosis among PLHIV. However, there are few data on the routine implementation of this intervention and its effectiveness in settings with limited resources.

Objectives: To measure the level of uptake and effectiveness of IPT in reducing tuberculosis incidence in a cohort of PLHIV enrolled into HIV care between 2007 and 2010 in five hospitals in southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of electronic patient database was done. The independent effects of no intervention, "IPT-only," "IPT-before-ART," "IPT-and-ART started simultaneously," "ART-only," and "IPT-after-ART" on TB incidence were measured. Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to assess association of treatment categories with TB incidence.

Results: Of 7,097 patients, 867 were excluded because they were transferred-in; a further 823 (12%) were excluded from the study because they were either identified to have TB through screening (292 patients) or were on TB treatment (531). Among the remaining 5,407 patients observed, IPT had been initiated for 39% of eligible patients. Children, male sex, advanced disease, and those in Pre-ART were less likely to be initiated on IPT. The overall TB incidence was 2.6 per 100 person-years. As compared to those with no intervention, use of "IPT-only" (aHR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.19-0.66) and "ART-only" (aHR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.24-0.43) were associated with significant reduction in TB incidence rate. Combining ART and IPT had a more profound effect. Starting IPT-before-ART (aHR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.08-0.42) or simultaneously with ART (aHR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.10-0.42) provided further reduction of TB at ∼ 80%.

Conclusions: IPT was found to be effective in reducing TB incidence, independently and with concomitant ART, under programme conditions in resource-limited settings. The level of IPT provision and effectiveness in reducing TB was encouraging in the study setting. Scaling up and strengthening IPT service in addition to ART can have beneficial effect in reducing TB burden among PLHIV in settings with high TB/HIV burden.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus