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Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

Li G, Wang Y, Liu B, Zhang G - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields.Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields.Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. CHINA.

ABSTRACT
Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

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Yield of Bt and non-Bt rice. Non-Bt rice = Minghui 63, Bt rice 1 = Minghui 63 cry1Ab/1Ac, Bt rice 2 = Minghui 63 cry2A.Non-Bt rice as well as Bt rice were sprayed with pesticides when insect or fungal pests reached the action threshold. Error bars indicate the standard error. Planned comparison of means showed that the yield of non-Bt rice and Bt rice did not differ significantly (d.f. = 6; t = 1.303; p = 0.240).
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pone-0104270-g001: Yield of Bt and non-Bt rice. Non-Bt rice = Minghui 63, Bt rice 1 = Minghui 63 cry1Ab/1Ac, Bt rice 2 = Minghui 63 cry2A.Non-Bt rice as well as Bt rice were sprayed with pesticides when insect or fungal pests reached the action threshold. Error bars indicate the standard error. Planned comparison of means showed that the yield of non-Bt rice and Bt rice did not differ significantly (d.f. = 6; t = 1.303; p = 0.240).

Mentions: In the present study, we evaluated the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines, one of which has been granted a safety certificate by the CMOA, using paddy zooplanktons as indicator species. Bt rice and non-transgenic rice were planted in plots in a complete randomized block design. Experimental fields were inspected weekly for rice pest occurrence and sprayed with pesticides when required to guarantee that non-Bt and Bt rice achieved equal yields (Fig. 1). The diversity and abundance of three types of zooplankton were compared between Bt and non-Bt treatments. Field water was collected to conduct laboratory rearing experiments of water quality using Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum, two species commonly used to evaluate water pollutants [20], [21]. Pesticide residues in field-collected water were also compared between Bt and non-Bt rice fields.


Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

Li G, Wang Y, Liu B, Zhang G - PLoS ONE (2014)

Yield of Bt and non-Bt rice. Non-Bt rice = Minghui 63, Bt rice 1 = Minghui 63 cry1Ab/1Ac, Bt rice 2 = Minghui 63 cry2A.Non-Bt rice as well as Bt rice were sprayed with pesticides when insect or fungal pests reached the action threshold. Error bars indicate the standard error. Planned comparison of means showed that the yield of non-Bt rice and Bt rice did not differ significantly (d.f. = 6; t = 1.303; p = 0.240).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126711&req=5

pone-0104270-g001: Yield of Bt and non-Bt rice. Non-Bt rice = Minghui 63, Bt rice 1 = Minghui 63 cry1Ab/1Ac, Bt rice 2 = Minghui 63 cry2A.Non-Bt rice as well as Bt rice were sprayed with pesticides when insect or fungal pests reached the action threshold. Error bars indicate the standard error. Planned comparison of means showed that the yield of non-Bt rice and Bt rice did not differ significantly (d.f. = 6; t = 1.303; p = 0.240).
Mentions: In the present study, we evaluated the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines, one of which has been granted a safety certificate by the CMOA, using paddy zooplanktons as indicator species. Bt rice and non-transgenic rice were planted in plots in a complete randomized block design. Experimental fields were inspected weekly for rice pest occurrence and sprayed with pesticides when required to guarantee that non-Bt and Bt rice achieved equal yields (Fig. 1). The diversity and abundance of three types of zooplankton were compared between Bt and non-Bt treatments. Field water was collected to conduct laboratory rearing experiments of water quality using Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum, two species commonly used to evaluate water pollutants [20], [21]. Pesticide residues in field-collected water were also compared between Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

Bottom Line: Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields.Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields.Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. CHINA.

ABSTRACT
Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus