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Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

Smith MS, Fridley JD, Goebel M, Bauerle TL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology.We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species.Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, 134A Plant Science Building, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

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Fine root survivorship of native and non-native congeners L. japonica, L. sempervirens (A–C) and F. alnus, R. alnifolia (D–F) over roots born during spring (A, D), summer (B, E) and fall (C, F) seasons.Data are for all roots observed from July 2010 through October 2011. Open circles (○) indicate non-native congeners and black circles (•) represent natives.
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pone-0104189-g003: Fine root survivorship of native and non-native congeners L. japonica, L. sempervirens (A–C) and F. alnus, R. alnifolia (D–F) over roots born during spring (A, D), summer (B, E) and fall (C, F) seasons.Data are for all roots observed from July 2010 through October 2011. Open circles (○) indicate non-native congeners and black circles (•) represent natives.

Mentions: Fine roots of L. sempervirens born in spring, summer, and fall were significantly longer-lived compared to fine roots of L. japonica (P<0.0001, Fig. 3A–C). Fine roots of the non-native L. japonica born in spring and summer reached a median survivorship of 495 days and 476 days, respectively, while fine roots born during fall only reached a survival at the 75th percentile of 213 days. No significant difference in median lifespan of fine roots of the non-native L. japonica was found for roots born during spring and summer (P = 0.468). Fine roots of L. sempervirens only reached the first quartile of survivorship at 551 days for roots born in spring and 516 days for roots born in fall. Estimations for fine roots born during the summer show that 88% remained visible for more than 551 days.


Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

Smith MS, Fridley JD, Goebel M, Bauerle TL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Fine root survivorship of native and non-native congeners L. japonica, L. sempervirens (A–C) and F. alnus, R. alnifolia (D–F) over roots born during spring (A, D), summer (B, E) and fall (C, F) seasons.Data are for all roots observed from July 2010 through October 2011. Open circles (○) indicate non-native congeners and black circles (•) represent natives.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126695&req=5

pone-0104189-g003: Fine root survivorship of native and non-native congeners L. japonica, L. sempervirens (A–C) and F. alnus, R. alnifolia (D–F) over roots born during spring (A, D), summer (B, E) and fall (C, F) seasons.Data are for all roots observed from July 2010 through October 2011. Open circles (○) indicate non-native congeners and black circles (•) represent natives.
Mentions: Fine roots of L. sempervirens born in spring, summer, and fall were significantly longer-lived compared to fine roots of L. japonica (P<0.0001, Fig. 3A–C). Fine roots of the non-native L. japonica born in spring and summer reached a median survivorship of 495 days and 476 days, respectively, while fine roots born during fall only reached a survival at the 75th percentile of 213 days. No significant difference in median lifespan of fine roots of the non-native L. japonica was found for roots born during spring and summer (P = 0.468). Fine roots of L. sempervirens only reached the first quartile of survivorship at 551 days for roots born in spring and 516 days for roots born in fall. Estimations for fine roots born during the summer show that 88% remained visible for more than 551 days.

Bottom Line: Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology.We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species.Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, 134A Plant Science Building, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

Show MeSH