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Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

Smith MS, Fridley JD, Goebel M, Bauerle TL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology.We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species.Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, 134A Plant Science Building, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

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Cumulative root production and mortality for (A) L. japonica, (B) L. sempervirens, (C) F. alnus, (D) R. alinfolia.Closed circles (•) represent cumulative root production as the number of roots per m2, and open circles (○) represent cumulative root mortality as the number of roots per mm2. The number of roots produced for L. sempervirens were adjusted to zero. Gray bars highlight the summer season (June-August).
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pone-0104189-g002: Cumulative root production and mortality for (A) L. japonica, (B) L. sempervirens, (C) F. alnus, (D) R. alinfolia.Closed circles (•) represent cumulative root production as the number of roots per m2, and open circles (○) represent cumulative root mortality as the number of roots per mm2. The number of roots produced for L. sempervirens were adjusted to zero. Gray bars highlight the summer season (June-August).

Mentions: L. sempervirens had a higher root standing crop (root biomass) compared to L. japonica (Fig. 2A & B, Fig. S3), due to the high number of roots viewed on the first day of observation. L. sempervirens showed higher root mortality during fall and winter, whereas L. japonica had higher root mortality during late spring and summer.


Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

Smith MS, Fridley JD, Goebel M, Bauerle TL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cumulative root production and mortality for (A) L. japonica, (B) L. sempervirens, (C) F. alnus, (D) R. alinfolia.Closed circles (•) represent cumulative root production as the number of roots per m2, and open circles (○) represent cumulative root mortality as the number of roots per mm2. The number of roots produced for L. sempervirens were adjusted to zero. Gray bars highlight the summer season (June-August).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126695&req=5

pone-0104189-g002: Cumulative root production and mortality for (A) L. japonica, (B) L. sempervirens, (C) F. alnus, (D) R. alinfolia.Closed circles (•) represent cumulative root production as the number of roots per m2, and open circles (○) represent cumulative root mortality as the number of roots per mm2. The number of roots produced for L. sempervirens were adjusted to zero. Gray bars highlight the summer season (June-August).
Mentions: L. sempervirens had a higher root standing crop (root biomass) compared to L. japonica (Fig. 2A & B, Fig. S3), due to the high number of roots viewed on the first day of observation. L. sempervirens showed higher root mortality during fall and winter, whereas L. japonica had higher root mortality during late spring and summer.

Bottom Line: Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology.We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species.Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, 134A Plant Science Building, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

Show MeSH