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Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

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Variation in the composition of the scents emitted by figs (A) and leaves (B).Two-dimensional NMDS ordinations on relative scent composition (% each VOC) computed separately on (A) fig scents (stress-value = 14%) and (B) leaf scents (stress-value = 11%). Circles represent Ficus nota and triangles Ficus septica samples, open symbols are sunrise samples and closed symbols are noon samples. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
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pone-0103581-g005: Variation in the composition of the scents emitted by figs (A) and leaves (B).Two-dimensional NMDS ordinations on relative scent composition (% each VOC) computed separately on (A) fig scents (stress-value = 14%) and (B) leaf scents (stress-value = 11%). Circles represent Ficus nota and triangles Ficus septica samples, open symbols are sunrise samples and closed symbols are noon samples. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.

Mentions: Sixty-seven VOCs were present in at least two fig samples. Receptive fig scent composition differed significantly between the two species and according to time of extraction (PERMANOVA, Table 3). The interaction term had no significant effect, suggesting that the two effects were orthogonal. Indeed, on the 2 dimensional NMDS ordination (Figure 5.A), the two species are separated along axis 1, and sunrise and noon samples along axis 2. Again, this suggests the absence of special features in Ficus septica scent production rhythm.


Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Variation in the composition of the scents emitted by figs (A) and leaves (B).Two-dimensional NMDS ordinations on relative scent composition (% each VOC) computed separately on (A) fig scents (stress-value = 14%) and (B) leaf scents (stress-value = 11%). Circles represent Ficus nota and triangles Ficus septica samples, open symbols are sunrise samples and closed symbols are noon samples. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126690&req=5

pone-0103581-g005: Variation in the composition of the scents emitted by figs (A) and leaves (B).Two-dimensional NMDS ordinations on relative scent composition (% each VOC) computed separately on (A) fig scents (stress-value = 14%) and (B) leaf scents (stress-value = 11%). Circles represent Ficus nota and triangles Ficus septica samples, open symbols are sunrise samples and closed symbols are noon samples. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
Mentions: Sixty-seven VOCs were present in at least two fig samples. Receptive fig scent composition differed significantly between the two species and according to time of extraction (PERMANOVA, Table 3). The interaction term had no significant effect, suggesting that the two effects were orthogonal. Indeed, on the 2 dimensional NMDS ordination (Figure 5.A), the two species are separated along axis 1, and sunrise and noon samples along axis 2. Again, this suggests the absence of special features in Ficus septica scent production rhythm.

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

Show MeSH