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Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

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Patterns of variation of the composition of scents emitted by Ficus septica and Ficus nota.Three-dimensional NMDS ordination on the relative composition (% each VOC) of scents emitted by figs (red symbols) and leaves (green symbols) of Ficus septica (triangles) and Ficus nota (circles) at sunrise (open symbols) and at noon (closed symbols). (A) Axes 1 and 2, (B) Axes 1 and 3. Stress-value = 10%. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
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pone-0103581-g004: Patterns of variation of the composition of scents emitted by Ficus septica and Ficus nota.Three-dimensional NMDS ordination on the relative composition (% each VOC) of scents emitted by figs (red symbols) and leaves (green symbols) of Ficus septica (triangles) and Ficus nota (circles) at sunrise (open symbols) and at noon (closed symbols). (A) Axes 1 and 2, (B) Axes 1 and 3. Stress-value = 10%. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.

Mentions: Relative scent composition varied significantly according to species, organ type and time of extraction (global PERMANOVA, Table 2). The species*organ type and organ type*time of extraction interactions were also significant. On the 3 dimensional NMDS ordination, fig and leaf scents were separated along axis 1 (Figure 4). Morning and noon scents were separated on axes 2 (Figure 4.A) and 3 (Figure 4.B, Wilcoxon rank sum tests comparing position along the axes: W = 326 and p = 0.0004 for axis 2, W = 331 and p = 0.0002 for axis 3).


Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Patterns of variation of the composition of scents emitted by Ficus septica and Ficus nota.Three-dimensional NMDS ordination on the relative composition (% each VOC) of scents emitted by figs (red symbols) and leaves (green symbols) of Ficus septica (triangles) and Ficus nota (circles) at sunrise (open symbols) and at noon (closed symbols). (A) Axes 1 and 2, (B) Axes 1 and 3. Stress-value = 10%. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126690&req=5

pone-0103581-g004: Patterns of variation of the composition of scents emitted by Ficus septica and Ficus nota.Three-dimensional NMDS ordination on the relative composition (% each VOC) of scents emitted by figs (red symbols) and leaves (green symbols) of Ficus septica (triangles) and Ficus nota (circles) at sunrise (open symbols) and at noon (closed symbols). (A) Axes 1 and 2, (B) Axes 1 and 3. Stress-value = 10%. Black arrows indicate places where two samples of the same category share the same locus.
Mentions: Relative scent composition varied significantly according to species, organ type and time of extraction (global PERMANOVA, Table 2). The species*organ type and organ type*time of extraction interactions were also significant. On the 3 dimensional NMDS ordination, fig and leaf scents were separated along axis 1 (Figure 4). Morning and noon scents were separated on axes 2 (Figure 4.A) and 3 (Figure 4.B, Wilcoxon rank sum tests comparing position along the axes: W = 326 and p = 0.0004 for axis 2, W = 331 and p = 0.0002 for axis 3).

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus