Limits...
Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

Show MeSH
The daily pattern of Ficus septica pollinator activity around trees bearing receptive figs.Number of yellow and black pollinators trapped at different times of the day, expressed as percentage of the total number of individuals trapped over 24
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126690&req=5

pone-0103581-g001: The daily pattern of Ficus septica pollinator activity around trees bearing receptive figs.Number of yellow and black pollinators trapped at different times of the day, expressed as percentage of the total number of individuals trapped over 24

Mentions: Black F. septica pollinators were much less abundant than yellow ones during the field session (1043 yellow wasps caught versus 71 black ones), a pattern also observed when we were monitoring emergences. Both F. septica pollinators and F. nota pollinators were virtually always caught during daytime on sticky traps (Figure 1, Table S1). In F. septica, the presence patterns of black and yellow wasps were very similar (Figure 1): most individuals were caught in the morning (87% of yellow and 85% of black pollinators were caught between sunrise and 12 a.m., see Table S1 for detailed results), with detections decreasing during the afternoon and approaching zero during the night. Given the difference in lifespan between both species, we would have expected the relative frequency of black wasps around receptive trees to peak in the afternoon. However, in addition to wasp lifespan, the actual presence of attractive figs must also influence the daily patterns of wasp presence around receptive trees. Morning-pollinated figs could rapidly lose attractiveness, a feature that could explain the low numbers of black wasps trapped on the trees in the afternoon. The following experiment was set up to test that hypothesis.


Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJ, Kjellberg F - PLoS ONE (2014)

The daily pattern of Ficus septica pollinator activity around trees bearing receptive figs.Number of yellow and black pollinators trapped at different times of the day, expressed as percentage of the total number of individuals trapped over 24
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126690&req=5

pone-0103581-g001: The daily pattern of Ficus septica pollinator activity around trees bearing receptive figs.Number of yellow and black pollinators trapped at different times of the day, expressed as percentage of the total number of individuals trapped over 24
Mentions: Black F. septica pollinators were much less abundant than yellow ones during the field session (1043 yellow wasps caught versus 71 black ones), a pattern also observed when we were monitoring emergences. Both F. septica pollinators and F. nota pollinators were virtually always caught during daytime on sticky traps (Figure 1, Table S1). In F. septica, the presence patterns of black and yellow wasps were very similar (Figure 1): most individuals were caught in the morning (87% of yellow and 85% of black pollinators were caught between sunrise and 12 a.m., see Table S1 for detailed results), with detections decreasing during the afternoon and approaching zero during the night. Given the difference in lifespan between both species, we would have expected the relative frequency of black wasps around receptive trees to peak in the afternoon. However, in addition to wasp lifespan, the actual presence of attractive figs must also influence the daily patterns of wasp presence around receptive trees. Morning-pollinated figs could rapidly lose attractiveness, a feature that could explain the low numbers of black wasps trapped on the trees in the afternoon. The following experiment was set up to test that hypothesis.

Bottom Line: Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species.Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits.Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question.

Show MeSH