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HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

Maughan-Brown B, Spaull N - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Small differences were found by gender.Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited.

Methods: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (nā€Š=ā€Š39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination.

Results: The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.

Conclusions: Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions should focus on correcting misconceptions that HIV can be transmitted via casual contact.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Beliefs that a student living with HIV should not be allowed to attend school.Proportion of grade 6 students who believed that students living with HIV should not be allowed to continue to attend school, by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and wealth quartile (Figure 2C) including 95% confidence interval.
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pone-0102981-g002: Beliefs that a student living with HIV should not be allowed to attend school.Proportion of grade 6 students who believed that students living with HIV should not be allowed to continue to attend school, by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and wealth quartile (Figure 2C) including 95% confidence interval.

Mentions: In Figure 2 we see similar patterns in the proportions who reported that an HIV-positive student should not be allowed to attend school by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and socioeconomic quartile (Figure 2C) as Figure 1 displayed. These figures emphasised variation in discrimination by subpopulations across the region. In Figure 2B, for example, results show that 8% of the urban sample in Swaziland reported that an HIV-positive student should not be allowed to attend school compared to 50% in the rural sample from Zimbabwe.


HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

Maughan-Brown B, Spaull N - PLoS ONE (2014)

Beliefs that a student living with HIV should not be allowed to attend school.Proportion of grade 6 students who believed that students living with HIV should not be allowed to continue to attend school, by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and wealth quartile (Figure 2C) including 95% confidence interval.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126685&req=5

pone-0102981-g002: Beliefs that a student living with HIV should not be allowed to attend school.Proportion of grade 6 students who believed that students living with HIV should not be allowed to continue to attend school, by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and wealth quartile (Figure 2C) including 95% confidence interval.
Mentions: In Figure 2 we see similar patterns in the proportions who reported that an HIV-positive student should not be allowed to attend school by gender (Figure 2A), geographic location (Figure 2B) and socioeconomic quartile (Figure 2C) as Figure 1 displayed. These figures emphasised variation in discrimination by subpopulations across the region. In Figure 2B, for example, results show that 8% of the urban sample in Swaziland reported that an HIV-positive student should not be allowed to attend school compared to 50% in the rural sample from Zimbabwe.

Bottom Line: Small differences were found by gender.Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited.

Methods: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (nā€Š=ā€Š39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination.

Results: The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.

Conclusions: Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions should focus on correcting misconceptions that HIV can be transmitted via casual contact.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus