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A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

Ghestem M, Cao K, Ma W, Rowe N, Leclerc R, Gadenne C, Stokes A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species.We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity.We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AgroParis Tech, UMR AMAP, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume) both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

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Soil profiles at the study site.Soil horizons at a) a reference site with no previous evidence of landslides or erosion; b) the stable site where a shallow landslide had occurred eight years previously and c) the hotspot. Colours were identified using a Munsell colour chart (Munsell 1947). OL: fresh litter, OF: fermenting litter, OH: litter with humic substances and well-transformed organic matter, A: organico-mineral layer, AB: mixture between A and B, B: layer of bedrock alteration, pieces of bedrock are visible, C: bedrock, mineral layer (Legros 2000; Baize and Girard 1995).
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pone-0095876-g002: Soil profiles at the study site.Soil horizons at a) a reference site with no previous evidence of landslides or erosion; b) the stable site where a shallow landslide had occurred eight years previously and c) the hotspot. Colours were identified using a Munsell colour chart (Munsell 1947). OL: fresh litter, OF: fermenting litter, OH: litter with humic substances and well-transformed organic matter, A: organico-mineral layer, AB: mixture between A and B, B: layer of bedrock alteration, pieces of bedrock are visible, C: bedrock, mineral layer (Legros 2000; Baize and Girard 1995).

Mentions: We determined soil profiles at the hotspot, stable site and also at a third site taken as reference. This reference site was situated 200 m from our sites at same altitude, covered with the same type of vegetation and was used for comparison of soil profiles (Figure 2). This reference site was considered highly stable because no evidence of previous landslides or erosion was found. Soil profiles to a depth of 1.0 m were examined at each site and described using colour charts [47]. Potential shear surfaces were identified as the limit between soil and bedrock horizons as is generally observed in the field and especially where percolating water stagnates [48], [49]. The soil was represented by a ferrallitic red carbonated soil with many mineral coloured spots, e.g. iron and manganese. In the third reference site with no previous evidence of a landslide, humus thickness was <1 cm, soil thickness was 0.7–2.0 m and the source rock was limestone. Humus was classified as a mesomull [50]. Source rock (limestone) emergence occurred at 0.5 m at the hotspot and at 0.4 m on the relatively stable site where a landslide had occurred 8 years previously (Figure 2).


A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

Ghestem M, Cao K, Ma W, Rowe N, Leclerc R, Gadenne C, Stokes A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Soil profiles at the study site.Soil horizons at a) a reference site with no previous evidence of landslides or erosion; b) the stable site where a shallow landslide had occurred eight years previously and c) the hotspot. Colours were identified using a Munsell colour chart (Munsell 1947). OL: fresh litter, OF: fermenting litter, OH: litter with humic substances and well-transformed organic matter, A: organico-mineral layer, AB: mixture between A and B, B: layer of bedrock alteration, pieces of bedrock are visible, C: bedrock, mineral layer (Legros 2000; Baize and Girard 1995).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126646&req=5

pone-0095876-g002: Soil profiles at the study site.Soil horizons at a) a reference site with no previous evidence of landslides or erosion; b) the stable site where a shallow landslide had occurred eight years previously and c) the hotspot. Colours were identified using a Munsell colour chart (Munsell 1947). OL: fresh litter, OF: fermenting litter, OH: litter with humic substances and well-transformed organic matter, A: organico-mineral layer, AB: mixture between A and B, B: layer of bedrock alteration, pieces of bedrock are visible, C: bedrock, mineral layer (Legros 2000; Baize and Girard 1995).
Mentions: We determined soil profiles at the hotspot, stable site and also at a third site taken as reference. This reference site was situated 200 m from our sites at same altitude, covered with the same type of vegetation and was used for comparison of soil profiles (Figure 2). This reference site was considered highly stable because no evidence of previous landslides or erosion was found. Soil profiles to a depth of 1.0 m were examined at each site and described using colour charts [47]. Potential shear surfaces were identified as the limit between soil and bedrock horizons as is generally observed in the field and especially where percolating water stagnates [48], [49]. The soil was represented by a ferrallitic red carbonated soil with many mineral coloured spots, e.g. iron and manganese. In the third reference site with no previous evidence of a landslide, humus thickness was <1 cm, soil thickness was 0.7–2.0 m and the source rock was limestone. Humus was classified as a mesomull [50]. Source rock (limestone) emergence occurred at 0.5 m at the hotspot and at 0.4 m on the relatively stable site where a landslide had occurred 8 years previously (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species.We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity.We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AgroParis Tech, UMR AMAP, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume) both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus