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Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Forearm risk function. (A) SAE fifth percentile female forearm moment (Bass et al., 1997), (B) PMHS fifth percentile female forearm moment (Duma et al., 1999, 2003), (C) PMHS average distal forearm speed (Hardy et al., 1997), and (D) THOR average distal forearm speed.
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Figure 11: Forearm risk function. (A) SAE fifth percentile female forearm moment (Bass et al., 1997), (B) PMHS fifth percentile female forearm moment (Duma et al., 1999, 2003), (C) PMHS average distal forearm speed (Hardy et al., 1997), and (D) THOR average distal forearm speed.

Mentions: In the late 1990s, before the change to de-powered airbags, automotive researcher found an increase in forearm injuries related to airbag deployment. To investigate forearm interaction with airbags, Bass et al. (1997) conducted PMHS studies relating forearm fractures with moments measured in the society of automotive engineers (SAE) fifth percentile female instrumented arm. The risk of a single forearm fracture is given by Eq. 47 and shown in Figure 11A. Note that this injury risk function is only applicable to the SAE instrumented arm.


Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Forearm risk function. (A) SAE fifth percentile female forearm moment (Bass et al., 1997), (B) PMHS fifth percentile female forearm moment (Duma et al., 1999, 2003), (C) PMHS average distal forearm speed (Hardy et al., 1997), and (D) THOR average distal forearm speed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126482&req=5

Figure 11: Forearm risk function. (A) SAE fifth percentile female forearm moment (Bass et al., 1997), (B) PMHS fifth percentile female forearm moment (Duma et al., 1999, 2003), (C) PMHS average distal forearm speed (Hardy et al., 1997), and (D) THOR average distal forearm speed.
Mentions: In the late 1990s, before the change to de-powered airbags, automotive researcher found an increase in forearm injuries related to airbag deployment. To investigate forearm interaction with airbags, Bass et al. (1997) conducted PMHS studies relating forearm fractures with moments measured in the society of automotive engineers (SAE) fifth percentile female instrumented arm. The risk of a single forearm fracture is given by Eq. 47 and shown in Figure 11A. Note that this injury risk function is only applicable to the SAE instrumented arm.

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus