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Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Lateral acetabular force injury risk function development. (A1) EuroSID 2-re pelvic injury risk function reported by Kuppa (2004). (A2) Comparison of EuroSID and THOR lateral contact force. Blue dots represent matched pairs of test data, black line represents an equal response from both ATDs, and the blue line (with dotted lines) represent the best linear fit of the data through zero with 95% confidence limits shown as dashed lines. (A3) THOR injury risk function for lateral contact force, (B) NHTSA acetabular injury risk function for frontal impact as reported by Rupp et al. (2010). (C) Femur fracture risk associated with applied forces in humans. The solid lines are the injury risk estimate, and the dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval. (D) Comparison of the THOR acetabular loads and the BDRC DRY. The blue dots are test data, the black line is the linear fit, and the dashed black line is an exponential fit.
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Figure 8: Lateral acetabular force injury risk function development. (A1) EuroSID 2-re pelvic injury risk function reported by Kuppa (2004). (A2) Comparison of EuroSID and THOR lateral contact force. Blue dots represent matched pairs of test data, black line represents an equal response from both ATDs, and the blue line (with dotted lines) represent the best linear fit of the data through zero with 95% confidence limits shown as dashed lines. (A3) THOR injury risk function for lateral contact force, (B) NHTSA acetabular injury risk function for frontal impact as reported by Rupp et al. (2010). (C) Femur fracture risk associated with applied forces in humans. The solid lines are the injury risk estimate, and the dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval. (D) Comparison of the THOR acetabular loads and the BDRC DRY. The blue dots are test data, the black line is the linear fit, and the dashed black line is an exponential fit.

Mentions: Kuppa (2004) shows the risk of injury related pubic force in the EuroSID-2re ATD (Eq. 28; Figure 8A1).


Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Lateral acetabular force injury risk function development. (A1) EuroSID 2-re pelvic injury risk function reported by Kuppa (2004). (A2) Comparison of EuroSID and THOR lateral contact force. Blue dots represent matched pairs of test data, black line represents an equal response from both ATDs, and the blue line (with dotted lines) represent the best linear fit of the data through zero with 95% confidence limits shown as dashed lines. (A3) THOR injury risk function for lateral contact force, (B) NHTSA acetabular injury risk function for frontal impact as reported by Rupp et al. (2010). (C) Femur fracture risk associated with applied forces in humans. The solid lines are the injury risk estimate, and the dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval. (D) Comparison of the THOR acetabular loads and the BDRC DRY. The blue dots are test data, the black line is the linear fit, and the dashed black line is an exponential fit.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126482&req=5

Figure 8: Lateral acetabular force injury risk function development. (A1) EuroSID 2-re pelvic injury risk function reported by Kuppa (2004). (A2) Comparison of EuroSID and THOR lateral contact force. Blue dots represent matched pairs of test data, black line represents an equal response from both ATDs, and the blue line (with dotted lines) represent the best linear fit of the data through zero with 95% confidence limits shown as dashed lines. (A3) THOR injury risk function for lateral contact force, (B) NHTSA acetabular injury risk function for frontal impact as reported by Rupp et al. (2010). (C) Femur fracture risk associated with applied forces in humans. The solid lines are the injury risk estimate, and the dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval. (D) Comparison of the THOR acetabular loads and the BDRC DRY. The blue dots are test data, the black line is the linear fit, and the dashed black line is an exponential fit.
Mentions: Kuppa (2004) shows the risk of injury related pubic force in the EuroSID-2re ATD (Eq. 28; Figure 8A1).

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus