Limits...
Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Shoulder contact force. (A) Comparison of THOR shoulder contact force related to the BDRC DRy, (B) Comparison of WorldSID and THOR shoulder contact force data reported by Pintar et al. (2007), (C) WorldSID injury risk function reported by Petitjean et al. (2012), and (D) developed THOR shoulder force injury risk functions.
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Figure 7: Shoulder contact force. (A) Comparison of THOR shoulder contact force related to the BDRC DRy, (B) Comparison of WorldSID and THOR shoulder contact force data reported by Pintar et al. (2007), (C) WorldSID injury risk function reported by Petitjean et al. (2012), and (D) developed THOR shoulder force injury risk functions.

Mentions: Using data collected with the THOR during testing at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, the THOR shoulder contact force can be correlated with the Y axis Dynamic Response. Two different fits were used to determine if the fit had an appreciable effect on the limits (Figure 7A). The linear fit was constrained to pass through zero.


Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

Somers JT, Newby N, Lawrence C, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Phelps S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Shoulder contact force. (A) Comparison of THOR shoulder contact force related to the BDRC DRy, (B) Comparison of WorldSID and THOR shoulder contact force data reported by Pintar et al. (2007), (C) WorldSID injury risk function reported by Petitjean et al. (2012), and (D) developed THOR shoulder force injury risk functions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126482&req=5

Figure 7: Shoulder contact force. (A) Comparison of THOR shoulder contact force related to the BDRC DRy, (B) Comparison of WorldSID and THOR shoulder contact force data reported by Pintar et al. (2007), (C) WorldSID injury risk function reported by Petitjean et al. (2012), and (D) developed THOR shoulder force injury risk functions.
Mentions: Using data collected with the THOR during testing at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, the THOR shoulder contact force can be correlated with the Y axis Dynamic Response. Two different fits were used to determine if the fit had an appreciable effect on the limits (Figure 7A). The linear fit was constrained to pass through zero.

Bottom Line: Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design.In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits.Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science Technology and Engineering Group, Wyle , Houston, TX , USA.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus