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Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

Viollet S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements.Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity).The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287 , Marseille , France.

ABSTRACT
Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Feedback-loop speed control system possibly involved in MOT activity. The closed-loop would reduce the slip speed between the target motion (vo) and the angular speed of the visual axes (ve). In this model, the periodic response of the muscle is seen to be triggered by an external signal acting as an input disturbance on the visual feedback loop. Kvu and Km are two pure gains, whereas the clock block can be regarded as a periodic signal generator. Reproduced with permission from Northrop (2001).
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Figure 3: Feedback-loop speed control system possibly involved in MOT activity. The closed-loop would reduce the slip speed between the target motion (vo) and the angular speed of the visual axes (ve). In this model, the periodic response of the muscle is seen to be triggered by an external signal acting as an input disturbance on the visual feedback loop. Kvu and Km are two pure gains, whereas the clock block can be regarded as a periodic signal generator. Reproduced with permission from Northrop (2001).

Mentions: Although Zaagman et al. (1977) recorded responses of horizontally selective movement detectors to step displacements of a grating which were smaller than the interommatidial angle, no clear-cut evidence of motion hyperacuity (see Section “Some Findings on Visual Acuity”) has been obtained so far in the fly. However, many interesting questions arose as the result of Qi and Northrop’s experiments: these authors were the first to suggest that a closed-loop control system may be responsible for the eye muscle activity observed (see Figure 3). The exact role of this control system still remains to be determined, however.


Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

Viollet S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Feedback-loop speed control system possibly involved in MOT activity. The closed-loop would reduce the slip speed between the target motion (vo) and the angular speed of the visual axes (ve). In this model, the periodic response of the muscle is seen to be triggered by an external signal acting as an input disturbance on the visual feedback loop. Kvu and Km are two pure gains, whereas the clock block can be regarded as a periodic signal generator. Reproduced with permission from Northrop (2001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126468&req=5

Figure 3: Feedback-loop speed control system possibly involved in MOT activity. The closed-loop would reduce the slip speed between the target motion (vo) and the angular speed of the visual axes (ve). In this model, the periodic response of the muscle is seen to be triggered by an external signal acting as an input disturbance on the visual feedback loop. Kvu and Km are two pure gains, whereas the clock block can be regarded as a periodic signal generator. Reproduced with permission from Northrop (2001).
Mentions: Although Zaagman et al. (1977) recorded responses of horizontally selective movement detectors to step displacements of a grating which were smaller than the interommatidial angle, no clear-cut evidence of motion hyperacuity (see Section “Some Findings on Visual Acuity”) has been obtained so far in the fly. However, many interesting questions arose as the result of Qi and Northrop’s experiments: these authors were the first to suggest that a closed-loop control system may be responsible for the eye muscle activity observed (see Figure 3). The exact role of this control system still remains to be determined, however.

Bottom Line: Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements.Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity).The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287 , Marseille , France.

ABSTRACT
Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus