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Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

Viollet S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements.Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity).The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287 , Marseille , France.

ABSTRACT
Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simultaneous recordings of the MOT spike frequency (A) and the light reflected by the anterior deep pseudopupil (DPP) (B) in the housefly. It is clearly shown that the activity of MOT elicits a displacement of the DPP causing an angular shift of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Adapted from (Hengstenberg, 1972).
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Figure 2: Simultaneous recordings of the MOT spike frequency (A) and the light reflected by the anterior deep pseudopupil (DPP) (B) in the housefly. It is clearly shown that the activity of MOT elicits a displacement of the DPP causing an angular shift of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Adapted from (Hengstenberg, 1972).

Mentions: Burtt and Patterson (1970) used antidromic light (Gemperlein and Järvilehto, 1969) to study the movement of the rhabdomeres. Other authors used a method consisted in examining the movements of the deep pseudopupil (DPP, Franceschini and Kirschfeld, 1971) elicited by angular shifts of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Hengstenberg (1971, 1972) reported that the DPP movements were correlated with changes in the light intensity (see Figure 2), whereas Franceschini et al. (1991) recorded the activity of the MOT and the orbito-scapalis muscle (MOS) simultaneously in the walking fly and correlated these activities with the micrometric movements of the ipsilateral photoreceptors measured optically on the DPP (Franceschini et al., 1995; Franceschini and Chagneux, 1997). Franceschini et al. were the first to report the occurrence of large decreases (from 120 to 40 Hz) in the spike firing rates of the MOT and the MOS and a scanning amplitude in the order of 0.5–1Δφ, with Δφ the angle between two adjacent ommatidia (see review by Land, 1997). In addition, the spike firing rate decreases observed in the two muscles were not always synchronous, reflecting the complexity of the 2-D movements made by the photoreceptors. Similar periodic gaze shifts to the human micro-nystagmus (see review by Rolfs, 2009) have been observed in studies on the flying fly (Franceschini and Chagneux, 1997), where Franceschini and Chagneux reported that the frequency of the quasi-periodic scanning of the visual axes ranged approximately between 5 and 6 Hz. In a recent study on the fixed Calliphora blowfly, in which video analysis was combined with intracellular electrophysiological photoreceptor recordings, retinal movements of 0.35°(about 0.3Δφ) were found to be associated with periodic eye movements with a frequency of 5–7 Hz (Ciobanu et al., 2013).


Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

Viollet S - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2014)

Simultaneous recordings of the MOT spike frequency (A) and the light reflected by the anterior deep pseudopupil (DPP) (B) in the housefly. It is clearly shown that the activity of MOT elicits a displacement of the DPP causing an angular shift of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Adapted from (Hengstenberg, 1972).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126468&req=5

Figure 2: Simultaneous recordings of the MOT spike frequency (A) and the light reflected by the anterior deep pseudopupil (DPP) (B) in the housefly. It is clearly shown that the activity of MOT elicits a displacement of the DPP causing an angular shift of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Adapted from (Hengstenberg, 1972).
Mentions: Burtt and Patterson (1970) used antidromic light (Gemperlein and Järvilehto, 1969) to study the movement of the rhabdomeres. Other authors used a method consisted in examining the movements of the deep pseudopupil (DPP, Franceschini and Kirschfeld, 1971) elicited by angular shifts of the photoreceptors’ optical axes. Hengstenberg (1971, 1972) reported that the DPP movements were correlated with changes in the light intensity (see Figure 2), whereas Franceschini et al. (1991) recorded the activity of the MOT and the orbito-scapalis muscle (MOS) simultaneously in the walking fly and correlated these activities with the micrometric movements of the ipsilateral photoreceptors measured optically on the DPP (Franceschini et al., 1995; Franceschini and Chagneux, 1997). Franceschini et al. were the first to report the occurrence of large decreases (from 120 to 40 Hz) in the spike firing rates of the MOT and the MOS and a scanning amplitude in the order of 0.5–1Δφ, with Δφ the angle between two adjacent ommatidia (see review by Land, 1997). In addition, the spike firing rate decreases observed in the two muscles were not always synchronous, reflecting the complexity of the 2-D movements made by the photoreceptors. Similar periodic gaze shifts to the human micro-nystagmus (see review by Rolfs, 2009) have been observed in studies on the flying fly (Franceschini and Chagneux, 1997), where Franceschini and Chagneux reported that the frequency of the quasi-periodic scanning of the visual axes ranged approximately between 5 and 6 Hz. In a recent study on the fixed Calliphora blowfly, in which video analysis was combined with intracellular electrophysiological photoreceptor recordings, retinal movements of 0.35°(about 0.3Δφ) were found to be associated with periodic eye movements with a frequency of 5–7 Hz (Ciobanu et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements.Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity).The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287 , Marseille , France.

ABSTRACT
Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus