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Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results Experiment 3: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
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Figure 5: Results Experiment 3: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.

Mentions: To further analyze the effects of rotation on conflict-adaptation, separate ANOVAs testing the degree to which S1 and S2 compatibility significantly interacted were conducted for each type of rotation. This interaction proved significant for static trials on RTs, F(1,19) = 188.91, MSe = 68587.80, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,19) = 81.08, MSe = 0.74, p < 0.001. Again, after rotations of 180∘, the conflict adaptation pattern was completely eliminated after rotating the boxes 180∘ for RTs, F(1,19) = 0.03, MSe = 5.14, p > 0.8, and errors, F(1,19) = 0.43, MSe = 0.001, p > 0.5. Finally, a significant interaction was observed for trials in which the boxes rotated 360∘ for both RTs, F(1,19) = 12.57, MSe = 2662.96, p < 0.003, and errors, F(1,19) = 11.82, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.003. An overview of the conflict control effects is provided in Table 3A and Figure 5.


Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Results Experiment 3: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126466&req=5

Figure 5: Results Experiment 3: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
Mentions: To further analyze the effects of rotation on conflict-adaptation, separate ANOVAs testing the degree to which S1 and S2 compatibility significantly interacted were conducted for each type of rotation. This interaction proved significant for static trials on RTs, F(1,19) = 188.91, MSe = 68587.80, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,19) = 81.08, MSe = 0.74, p < 0.001. Again, after rotations of 180∘, the conflict adaptation pattern was completely eliminated after rotating the boxes 180∘ for RTs, F(1,19) = 0.03, MSe = 5.14, p > 0.8, and errors, F(1,19) = 0.43, MSe = 0.001, p > 0.5. Finally, a significant interaction was observed for trials in which the boxes rotated 360∘ for both RTs, F(1,19) = 12.57, MSe = 2662.96, p < 0.003, and errors, F(1,19) = 11.82, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.003. An overview of the conflict control effects is provided in Table 3A and Figure 5.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus