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Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results Experiment 2: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
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Figure 4: Results Experiment 2: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.

Mentions: The factors were again rotation (rotated vs. static) and compatibility of S1 and S2 (compatible vs. neutral vs. incompatible), where the compatible and incompatible conditions were taken from the horizontal displays and the neutral conditions from the vertical displays. In repeated measures ANOVAs, S1 compatibility approached significance in RTs, F(2,42) = 3.01, MSe = 575.99, p < 0.07, but not in error proportions, F(2,42) = 0.79, MSe = 0.002, p > 0.7; while S2 compatibility had a significant effect on both RTs, F(2,42) = 42.82, MSe = 20235.00, p < 0.001, and errors, F(2,42) = 48.85, MSe = 0.21, p < 0.001. Participants were 15 ms faster with rotating trials, F(1,21) = 26.19, MSe = 13974.68, p < 0.001, but not more often correct, F(1,21) = 1.75, MSe = 0.01, p > 0.2. Rotation modulated the effect of S1 compatibility, F(2,42) = 4.55, MSe = 626.31, p < 0.02, for RTs, but not errors, F(2,42) = 0.46, MSe = 0.001, p > 0.6. The standard conflict-adaptation pattern was found for RTs, F(4,84) = 10.54, MSe = 2521.80, p < 0.001, and errors, F(4,84) = 8.60, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.001, with larger S2 compatibility effects after compatible than incompatible S1 (effect sizes: 39 ms and 13% as opposed to 12 ms and 2% respectively). As can be seen in Table 2A and Figure 4, adaptation-type patterns after a neutral S1 were in between (24 ms, 7%). The three-way interaction was also significant in RTs, F(4,72) = 14.65, MSe = 3527.93, p < 0.001, again showing that rotation eliminated all adaptation-type effects: strong conflict-adaptation was found under static conditions, RTs: t(21) = 5.57, p < 0.001, errors: t(21) = 4.59, p < 0.001, but insignificant under rotating conditions, RTs: t(21) = 1.10, p > 0.1, errors: t(21) = 0.15, p > 0.8.


Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Results Experiment 2: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126466&req=5

Figure 4: Results Experiment 2: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
Mentions: The factors were again rotation (rotated vs. static) and compatibility of S1 and S2 (compatible vs. neutral vs. incompatible), where the compatible and incompatible conditions were taken from the horizontal displays and the neutral conditions from the vertical displays. In repeated measures ANOVAs, S1 compatibility approached significance in RTs, F(2,42) = 3.01, MSe = 575.99, p < 0.07, but not in error proportions, F(2,42) = 0.79, MSe = 0.002, p > 0.7; while S2 compatibility had a significant effect on both RTs, F(2,42) = 42.82, MSe = 20235.00, p < 0.001, and errors, F(2,42) = 48.85, MSe = 0.21, p < 0.001. Participants were 15 ms faster with rotating trials, F(1,21) = 26.19, MSe = 13974.68, p < 0.001, but not more often correct, F(1,21) = 1.75, MSe = 0.01, p > 0.2. Rotation modulated the effect of S1 compatibility, F(2,42) = 4.55, MSe = 626.31, p < 0.02, for RTs, but not errors, F(2,42) = 0.46, MSe = 0.001, p > 0.6. The standard conflict-adaptation pattern was found for RTs, F(4,84) = 10.54, MSe = 2521.80, p < 0.001, and errors, F(4,84) = 8.60, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.001, with larger S2 compatibility effects after compatible than incompatible S1 (effect sizes: 39 ms and 13% as opposed to 12 ms and 2% respectively). As can be seen in Table 2A and Figure 4, adaptation-type patterns after a neutral S1 were in between (24 ms, 7%). The three-way interaction was also significant in RTs, F(4,72) = 14.65, MSe = 3527.93, p < 0.001, again showing that rotation eliminated all adaptation-type effects: strong conflict-adaptation was found under static conditions, RTs: t(21) = 5.57, p < 0.001, errors: t(21) = 4.59, p < 0.001, but insignificant under rotating conditions, RTs: t(21) = 1.10, p > 0.1, errors: t(21) = 0.15, p > 0.8.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus