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Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results Experiment 1: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Conflict-adaptation was measured as the reduction in Simon effect after incompatibility. Event-coding effects were measured as the decrease in response-priming benefits if the location did not repeat along with the required response. Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
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Figure 3: Results Experiment 1: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Conflict-adaptation was measured as the reduction in Simon effect after incompatibility. Event-coding effects were measured as the decrease in response-priming benefits if the location did not repeat along with the required response. Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.

Mentions: Rotation had a comparable effects here, both on RTs, F(1,17) = 52.39, MSe = 32831.63, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 2.23, MSe = 0.01, p > 0.2. The only other main effect indicated that responses were faster if the shape/response was repeated, F(1,17) = 18.77, MSe = 15887.34, p < 0.001. As expected (Hommel et al., 2004), stimulus-location repetition interacted significantly with shape/response repetition in RTs, F(1,17) = 25.34, MSe = 17916.27, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 23.84, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.001. The standard cross-over interaction indicated that performance was better with complete repetitions and alternations than with partial-repetitions (see Table 1B). In other words, performance was good if stimulus shape, stimulus location, and the response was repeated or if all three features changed, but comparatively bad if shape and response were repeated while stimulus location alternated or if shape and response alternated while stimulus location repeated. This interaction was further modified by rotation in both RTs, F(1,17) = 43.47, MSe = 14077.43, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 12.83, MSe = 0.02, p < 0.005. As shown in Table 1B and Figure 3, partial-repetition costs and, thus, the interaction of location and shape/response repetition) were restricted to static boxes and disappeared with rotating boxes. Interestingly, overlap costs were not negative in the rotation condition.


Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Results Experiment 1: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Conflict-adaptation was measured as the reduction in Simon effect after incompatibility. Event-coding effects were measured as the decrease in response-priming benefits if the location did not repeat along with the required response. Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126466&req=5

Figure 3: Results Experiment 1: effects of rotation on sequential Simon effects (left) and event-coding (right). Conflict-adaptation was measured as the reduction in Simon effect after incompatibility. Event-coding effects were measured as the decrease in response-priming benefits if the location did not repeat along with the required response. Error bars represent standard error of the Simon (left) or response-priming (right) effect within the specific condition.
Mentions: Rotation had a comparable effects here, both on RTs, F(1,17) = 52.39, MSe = 32831.63, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 2.23, MSe = 0.01, p > 0.2. The only other main effect indicated that responses were faster if the shape/response was repeated, F(1,17) = 18.77, MSe = 15887.34, p < 0.001. As expected (Hommel et al., 2004), stimulus-location repetition interacted significantly with shape/response repetition in RTs, F(1,17) = 25.34, MSe = 17916.27, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 23.84, MSe = 0.03, p < 0.001. The standard cross-over interaction indicated that performance was better with complete repetitions and alternations than with partial-repetitions (see Table 1B). In other words, performance was good if stimulus shape, stimulus location, and the response was repeated or if all three features changed, but comparatively bad if shape and response were repeated while stimulus location alternated or if shape and response alternated while stimulus location repeated. This interaction was further modified by rotation in both RTs, F(1,17) = 43.47, MSe = 14077.43, p < 0.001, and errors, F(1,17) = 12.83, MSe = 0.02, p < 0.005. As shown in Table 1B and Figure 3, partial-repetition costs and, thus, the interaction of location and shape/response repetition) were restricted to static boxes and disappeared with rotating boxes. Interestingly, overlap costs were not negative in the rotation condition.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus