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Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic depiction of the trial-sequence of two example trials. After presenting a fixation crosshair, two boxes were presented for 500 ms in the left and right of the screen, one containing the shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. In the “static” condition (left), an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) followed in which the boxes stood still for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis during this ISI. In both conditions, the boxes were statically presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was shown. S2 was shown for 700 ms before an inter-trial interval of 1100 ms ended the trial.
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Figure 2: Schematic depiction of the trial-sequence of two example trials. After presenting a fixation crosshair, two boxes were presented for 500 ms in the left and right of the screen, one containing the shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. In the “static” condition (left), an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) followed in which the boxes stood still for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis during this ISI. In both conditions, the boxes were statically presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was shown. S2 was shown for 700 ms before an inter-trial interval of 1100 ms ended the trial.

Mentions: As outlined in Figure 2, a fixation cross was presented for 500 ms, after which the two boxes were presented on the left and right of the screen, one of them containing the target shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. After 500 ms, the targets were no longer shown on the screen. In the “static” condition, the boxes stood still, without targets, for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis at a speed of approximately 4∘ with each 44 ms. After the 800 ms, both in the static condition and the rotating condition, the boxes were presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was presented. S2 was shown for 700 ms before a screen with feedback informed the participant of the performance. This last screen also comprised the inter-trial interval and was shown for 1100 ms.


Sequential modulations of the Simon effect depend on episodic retrieval.

Spapé MM, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2014)

Schematic depiction of the trial-sequence of two example trials. After presenting a fixation crosshair, two boxes were presented for 500 ms in the left and right of the screen, one containing the shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. In the “static” condition (left), an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) followed in which the boxes stood still for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis during this ISI. In both conditions, the boxes were statically presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was shown. S2 was shown for 700 ms before an inter-trial interval of 1100 ms ended the trial.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126466&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic depiction of the trial-sequence of two example trials. After presenting a fixation crosshair, two boxes were presented for 500 ms in the left and right of the screen, one containing the shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. In the “static” condition (left), an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) followed in which the boxes stood still for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis during this ISI. In both conditions, the boxes were statically presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was shown. S2 was shown for 700 ms before an inter-trial interval of 1100 ms ended the trial.
Mentions: As outlined in Figure 2, a fixation cross was presented for 500 ms, after which the two boxes were presented on the left and right of the screen, one of them containing the target shape (S1) to which participants were required to respond. After 500 ms, the targets were no longer shown on the screen. In the “static” condition, the boxes stood still, without targets, for 800 ms, whereas in the rotating condition, they rotated around their axis at a speed of approximately 4∘ with each 44 ms. After the 800 ms, both in the static condition and the rotating condition, the boxes were presented for another 200 ms before the second target (S2) was presented. S2 was shown for 700 ms before a screen with feedback informed the participant of the performance. This last screen also comprised the inter-trial interval and was shown for 1100 ms.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility.The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition.Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Sequential modulations of conflict effects, like the reduction of the Simon effect after incompatible trials, have been taken to reflect the operation of a proactive control mechanism commonly called conflict monitoring. However, such modulations are often contaminated by episodic effects like priming and stimulus-response feature integration. It has previously been observed that if the episodic representation of a conflicting trial is altered by rotating the stimulus framing 180(∘) around its axis, the subsequent "conflict adaptation" pattern is eliminated. In Experiment 1, we replicate the findings and provide the basic episodic interpretation. In Experiment 2, we extend the framework to include rotations of 90(∘), and verify that the episodic effects generalize to scenarios of neutral compatibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, we add complete, 360(∘) rotations, and show that the episodic manipulation by itself does not eliminate the conflict adaptation patterns - as long as conditions favor episodic retrieval. The experiments are argued to demonstrate that an episodic account of the conflict adaptation effect can most parsimoniously account for the behavioral effects without relying on higher order cognition. Accordingly, we conclude that conflict adaptation can be understood either as critically depending on episodic retrieval, or alternatively reflecting only episodic retrieval itself.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus