Large-scale filament formation inhibits the activity of CTP synthetase.
Bottom Line: Structure-guided mutagenesis and mathematical modeling further indicate that coupling activity to polymerization promotes cooperative catalytic regulation.This previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism is important for cellular function since a mutant that disrupts CtpS polymerization disrupts E. coli growth and metabolic regulation without reducing CTP levels.We propose that regulation by large-scale polymerization enables ultrasensitive control of enzymatic activity while storing an enzyme subpopulation in a conformationally restricted form that is readily activatable.
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, United States.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The CtpS crystal structure suggests that the enzyme's UTP and CTP binding sites partially overlap (Endrizzi et al., 2005), raising the question of whether CtpS assembly is controlled by the absolute level of CTP or the relative product/substrate levels. 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) is a glutamine analog that covalently binds glutaminase active sites and irreversibly inactivates enzymatic activity (Chakraborty and Hurlbert, 1961). When added to activity buffer, DON abolishes both CTP production and CtpS polymerization (Figure 2—figure supplement 4). However, DON-treated CtpS can still polymerize when CTP is added to the solution (Figure 2E). Polymers formed in the presence of CTP and DON disassemble upon the addition of substrates but do not reform after substrate addition (Figure 2E), presumably because the DON-inhibited CtpS cannot produce additional CTP. DON treatment has no effect on CtpS polymerization when the enzyme is incubated with saturating CTP (Figure 2—figure supplements 1 and 5). These results suggest that competition between substrate (UTP) and product (CTP) binding controls the polymerization equilibrium of CtpS. The dependence of polymerization on CTP levels may explain why DON treatment abolishes in vivo CtpS assembly in some cellular contexts (Ingerson-Mahar et al., 2010) but not others (Chen et al., 2011).
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, United States.