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Imaging of articular cartilage.

Paunipagar BK, Rasalkar D - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2014)

Bottom Line: It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear.MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage.With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Imaging Sciences, Global Hospitals, Mumbai, India.

ABSTRACT
We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A 46 year old male volunteer with knee pain. Sagittal images of knee joint show superficial cartilage fissure (long arrow) within medial femoral condyle. Note that superficial cartilage lesion is more conspicuous on SPGR image. This is classically termed as ‘crab meat’ appearance. Additionally, small amount of marrow edema (short arrow) is also appreciable. According to Modified Outerbridge classification, crab meat appearance is categorized as grade 3 chondral lesions
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Figure 9: A 46 year old male volunteer with knee pain. Sagittal images of knee joint show superficial cartilage fissure (long arrow) within medial femoral condyle. Note that superficial cartilage lesion is more conspicuous on SPGR image. This is classically termed as ‘crab meat’ appearance. Additionally, small amount of marrow edema (short arrow) is also appreciable. According to Modified Outerbridge classification, crab meat appearance is categorized as grade 3 chondral lesions

Mentions: Spoiled gradient echo sequences such as SPGR or fast low angle shot (FLASH) provide T1-weighted images with better contrast between cartilage (hyperintense) and intra-articular fluid (hypointense).[1920] Standard SE MRI has a lower accuracy as compared to the fat-suppressed SPGR. The sensitivity of the sequence approaches 93%, with articular cartilage appearing bright and remainder of the structures appearing relatively dark[2122] [Figure 8]. 3D SPGR is recommended by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) as a standard sequence in imaging for evaluation of the articular cartilage lesions, especially in post cartilage repair status. The images are primarily T1-weighted sequences obtained at a low flip angle. The disadvantages are longer acquisition times and inadequacy to depict surface defects as well as the other joint structures. Finally, 3D gradient echo methods are less useful for the diagnosis of ligament or meniscal tears than SE techniques. Despite these limitations, 3D SPGR imaging is considered the standard for morphologic imaging of cartilage[23] [Figure 9].


Imaging of articular cartilage.

Paunipagar BK, Rasalkar D - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2014)

A 46 year old male volunteer with knee pain. Sagittal images of knee joint show superficial cartilage fissure (long arrow) within medial femoral condyle. Note that superficial cartilage lesion is more conspicuous on SPGR image. This is classically termed as ‘crab meat’ appearance. Additionally, small amount of marrow edema (short arrow) is also appreciable. According to Modified Outerbridge classification, crab meat appearance is categorized as grade 3 chondral lesions
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4126138&req=5

Figure 9: A 46 year old male volunteer with knee pain. Sagittal images of knee joint show superficial cartilage fissure (long arrow) within medial femoral condyle. Note that superficial cartilage lesion is more conspicuous on SPGR image. This is classically termed as ‘crab meat’ appearance. Additionally, small amount of marrow edema (short arrow) is also appreciable. According to Modified Outerbridge classification, crab meat appearance is categorized as grade 3 chondral lesions
Mentions: Spoiled gradient echo sequences such as SPGR or fast low angle shot (FLASH) provide T1-weighted images with better contrast between cartilage (hyperintense) and intra-articular fluid (hypointense).[1920] Standard SE MRI has a lower accuracy as compared to the fat-suppressed SPGR. The sensitivity of the sequence approaches 93%, with articular cartilage appearing bright and remainder of the structures appearing relatively dark[2122] [Figure 8]. 3D SPGR is recommended by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) as a standard sequence in imaging for evaluation of the articular cartilage lesions, especially in post cartilage repair status. The images are primarily T1-weighted sequences obtained at a low flip angle. The disadvantages are longer acquisition times and inadequacy to depict surface defects as well as the other joint structures. Finally, 3D gradient echo methods are less useful for the diagnosis of ligament or meniscal tears than SE techniques. Despite these limitations, 3D SPGR imaging is considered the standard for morphologic imaging of cartilage[23] [Figure 9].

Bottom Line: It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear.MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage.With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Imaging Sciences, Global Hospitals, Mumbai, India.

ABSTRACT
We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus