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Genetic evidence of African slavery at the beginning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

Martiniano R, Coelho C, Ferreira MT, Neves MJ, Pinhasi R, Bradley DG - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry.The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples.These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15(th)-17(th) centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.

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(A) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining UDD (lozenges in red) and Leprosarium (lozenges in yellow) samples merged with selected African, European and Asian populations from the 1000 Genomes Omni dataset. (B) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3. Population key: ACB, African Caribbeans in Barbados; ASW, Americans of African ancestry in SW USA; CEU, Utah residents (CEPH) with Northern and Western European ancestry; CHB, Han Chinese in Beijing, China; FIN, Finnish in Finland; GBR, British in England and Scotland; IBS, Iberian population in Spain; LWK, Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; TSI, Toscani in Italy; YRI, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. (C) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining both individuals from UDD (125 and 166, lozenges in red) merged with African samples from the HGDP dataset. (D) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3.
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f3: (A) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining UDD (lozenges in red) and Leprosarium (lozenges in yellow) samples merged with selected African, European and Asian populations from the 1000 Genomes Omni dataset. (B) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3. Population key: ACB, African Caribbeans in Barbados; ASW, Americans of African ancestry in SW USA; CEU, Utah residents (CEPH) with Northern and Western European ancestry; CHB, Han Chinese in Beijing, China; FIN, Finnish in Finland; GBR, British in England and Scotland; IBS, Iberian population in Spain; LWK, Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; TSI, Toscani in Italy; YRI, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. (C) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining both individuals from UDD (125 and 166, lozenges in red) merged with African samples from the HGDP dataset. (D) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3.

Mentions: In the first instance, we merged our data with the 1000 Genomes project dataset (Omni) (Figure 3a), which consists of high density genotype data of worldwide populations12, which allowed us to observe a positioning of the samples sequenced in the present study toward distinct continental clusters (Figure 3a). PCA revealed a greater affinity of samples 7, 36 and 37 (Leprosarium) and samples 125 and 166 (UDD) with African (LWK, YRI), African ancestry (ASW) and African Caribbean (ACB) populations. Individuals 5 and 34 (Leprosarium) fell adjacent to the European population cluster (IBS, GBR, TSI, FIN and CEU). Separate PCA plots are shown in Supplementary Figure S1. Interestingly, the Leprosarium individuals 7 and 36 were placed near the edge of populations of African ancestry, along with individuals from the Caribbean and America where substantial partial European admixture is well documented, suggesting the possibility of African-European admixture.


Genetic evidence of African slavery at the beginning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

Martiniano R, Coelho C, Ferreira MT, Neves MJ, Pinhasi R, Bradley DG - Sci Rep (2014)

(A) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining UDD (lozenges in red) and Leprosarium (lozenges in yellow) samples merged with selected African, European and Asian populations from the 1000 Genomes Omni dataset. (B) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3. Population key: ACB, African Caribbeans in Barbados; ASW, Americans of African ancestry in SW USA; CEU, Utah residents (CEPH) with Northern and Western European ancestry; CHB, Han Chinese in Beijing, China; FIN, Finnish in Finland; GBR, British in England and Scotland; IBS, Iberian population in Spain; LWK, Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; TSI, Toscani in Italy; YRI, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. (C) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining both individuals from UDD (125 and 166, lozenges in red) merged with African samples from the HGDP dataset. (D) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125989&req=5

f3: (A) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining UDD (lozenges in red) and Leprosarium (lozenges in yellow) samples merged with selected African, European and Asian populations from the 1000 Genomes Omni dataset. (B) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3. Population key: ACB, African Caribbeans in Barbados; ASW, Americans of African ancestry in SW USA; CEU, Utah residents (CEPH) with Northern and Western European ancestry; CHB, Han Chinese in Beijing, China; FIN, Finnish in Finland; GBR, British in England and Scotland; IBS, Iberian population in Spain; LWK, Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; TSI, Toscani in Italy; YRI, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. (C) Procrustes transformation of Principal Component Analysis combining both individuals from UDD (125 and 166, lozenges in red) merged with African samples from the HGDP dataset. (D) ADMIXTURE Plot of the same data used for the PCA assuming k = 3.
Mentions: In the first instance, we merged our data with the 1000 Genomes project dataset (Omni) (Figure 3a), which consists of high density genotype data of worldwide populations12, which allowed us to observe a positioning of the samples sequenced in the present study toward distinct continental clusters (Figure 3a). PCA revealed a greater affinity of samples 7, 36 and 37 (Leprosarium) and samples 125 and 166 (UDD) with African (LWK, YRI), African ancestry (ASW) and African Caribbean (ACB) populations. Individuals 5 and 34 (Leprosarium) fell adjacent to the European population cluster (IBS, GBR, TSI, FIN and CEU). Separate PCA plots are shown in Supplementary Figure S1. Interestingly, the Leprosarium individuals 7 and 36 were placed near the edge of populations of African ancestry, along with individuals from the Caribbean and America where substantial partial European admixture is well documented, suggesting the possibility of African-European admixture.

Bottom Line: The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry.The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples.These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15(th)-17(th) centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus