Limits...
Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

He Q, Bertness MD, Bruno JF, Li B, Chen G, Coverdale TC, Altieri AH, Bai J, Sun T, Pennings SC, Liu J, Ehrlich PR, Cui B - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude.Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978.Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

ABSTRACT
Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Trends in human impacts on China's coastal ecosystems.(a) China's fishery catches in coastal seas (exclusive economic zone, EEZ) and globally. (b) Waste emissions. (c) Habitat transformations. (d) Marine transportation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125988&req=5

f2: Trends in human impacts on China's coastal ecosystems.(a) China's fishery catches in coastal seas (exclusive economic zone, EEZ) and globally. (b) Waste emissions. (c) Habitat transformations. (d) Marine transportation.

Mentions: All of the 15 examined human impacts increased, several by orders of magnitude, during the six-decade study period (Fig. 2). Some impacts (e.g., excess watershed fertilizers, CO2 emissions, mariculture habitat transformation, and marine freight transportation) showed trajectories reflecting GDP growth. Other impacts (e.g., exclusive economic zone [EEZ] fishing, global fishing, habitat transformation for salt production [hereafter, saltpan], coastal reclamation in Shanghai and Jiangsu, and marine passenger transportation) also increased, but at lower rates. Pre- and post-reform comparisons revealed significantly higher annual increases in post- than pre-reform periods for 6 of the 10 impacts with data for both periods (at the level of P < 0.05). We found no differences for the remaining 4 impacts (Supplementary Fig. S1). We did not find lower growth in post- than in pre-reform periods for any human impact. Results for per capita impacts were similar, except that coastal reclamation in Shanghai slowed down post-reforms (Supplementary Fig. S1). Current values of 6 of the 10 examined human impacts reached far above the 95% confidence intervals forecasted using pre-reform trends, 4 fell within and none fell below.


Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

He Q, Bertness MD, Bruno JF, Li B, Chen G, Coverdale TC, Altieri AH, Bai J, Sun T, Pennings SC, Liu J, Ehrlich PR, Cui B - Sci Rep (2014)

Trends in human impacts on China's coastal ecosystems.(a) China's fishery catches in coastal seas (exclusive economic zone, EEZ) and globally. (b) Waste emissions. (c) Habitat transformations. (d) Marine transportation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125988&req=5

f2: Trends in human impacts on China's coastal ecosystems.(a) China's fishery catches in coastal seas (exclusive economic zone, EEZ) and globally. (b) Waste emissions. (c) Habitat transformations. (d) Marine transportation.
Mentions: All of the 15 examined human impacts increased, several by orders of magnitude, during the six-decade study period (Fig. 2). Some impacts (e.g., excess watershed fertilizers, CO2 emissions, mariculture habitat transformation, and marine freight transportation) showed trajectories reflecting GDP growth. Other impacts (e.g., exclusive economic zone [EEZ] fishing, global fishing, habitat transformation for salt production [hereafter, saltpan], coastal reclamation in Shanghai and Jiangsu, and marine passenger transportation) also increased, but at lower rates. Pre- and post-reform comparisons revealed significantly higher annual increases in post- than pre-reform periods for 6 of the 10 impacts with data for both periods (at the level of P < 0.05). We found no differences for the remaining 4 impacts (Supplementary Fig. S1). We did not find lower growth in post- than in pre-reform periods for any human impact. Results for per capita impacts were similar, except that coastal reclamation in Shanghai slowed down post-reforms (Supplementary Fig. S1). Current values of 6 of the 10 examined human impacts reached far above the 95% confidence intervals forecasted using pre-reform trends, 4 fell within and none fell below.

Bottom Line: Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude.Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978.Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

ABSTRACT
Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus