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Interaction between physiological and subjective states predicts the effect of a judging panel on the postures of cellists in performance.

Endo S, Juhlberg K, Bradbury A, Wing AM - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance.In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy.This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chair of Information-Oriented Control, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technische Universität München Munich, Germany ; SyMoN Lab, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham Birmingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance. Twenty four expert cellists played a short piece of music, to a metronome beat, in the presence and absence of the panel. Kinematic analyses showed that in the presence of the panel the temporal execution of left arm shifting movements became less variable and closer to the metronome beat. In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy. A detailed postural analysis indicated that left elbow angle during execution of a given high note was correlated with level of heart rate, though the nature of this correlation was systematically affected by the relevant participant's subjective state: if anxious, a higher heart rate correlated with a more flexed elbow, if not anxious then with a more extended elbow. Our results suggest a change in physiological state alone does not reliably predict a change in behavior in performing cellists, which instead depends on the interaction between physiological state and subjective experience of anxiety. This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Illustration of the experimental setup. A total of 29 small markers were attached to the upper body of the participants and the instrument. (B) The left hand ring finger position was transformed to align with the longitudinal axis of the instrument and the bridge on the cello was used as the center of the Cartesian coordinate. (C) Music score designed for the purpose of the present study. The three high notes are indicated by the arrows. Fingerings (instructions on which finger to use, where index = 1, middle = 2, ring = 3, little = 4) were specified in the score for the participants. (D) An example of behavioral and physiological measures from a single trial. The heart rate is converted to bpm. Zero in the finger position indicates the position of the bridge.
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Figure 1: (A) Illustration of the experimental setup. A total of 29 small markers were attached to the upper body of the participants and the instrument. (B) The left hand ring finger position was transformed to align with the longitudinal axis of the instrument and the bridge on the cello was used as the center of the Cartesian coordinate. (C) Music score designed for the purpose of the present study. The three high notes are indicated by the arrows. Fingerings (instructions on which finger to use, where index = 1, middle = 2, ring = 3, little = 4) were specified in the score for the participants. (D) An example of behavioral and physiological measures from a single trial. The heart rate is converted to bpm. Zero in the finger position indicates the position of the bridge.

Mentions: Participants played a piece of music based on a fragment of Brahms Double Concerto Op. 102, specifically arranged and fingered for this study by one of the authors (Adrian Bradbury), and given to each participant at least 24 h before their session. The music score was an 11-bar piece played at a tempo of 60 bpm. The piece contained three high notes (indicate by arrows in Figure 1C) placed two bars apart from each other and executed with the ring finger of the left hand. The pitch of the high notes, and therefore the distance covered by the left hand up the fingerboard to reach them, increased progressively over three levels. In an attempt to provoke stress in the participants, in the middle of the experiment, the panel of judges was introduced into the room and sat behind the table, facing the participants. The panel consisted of two of the authors. All participants knew one member of the panel (Adrian Bradbury) as he was either their colleague or on their teaching staff, but not the other (Alan M. Wing or Satoshi Endo). The experiment was conducted by another researcher (Kristina Juhlberg) and the panel had no interaction with the participants throughout the study and merely acted as observers. The participants were not informed that the judges were researchers. To further attempt to increase the performance pressure, the panel also informed the participant that his or her performance would be rated and recorded. In addition, the panel turned on the red light bulb placed in front of them to signal the start of the (sham) recording. We judged that some pressure would at least be elicited by association with genuinely stressful performance situations, hence the panel behind a desk (quasi audition situation) and the red light (quasi recording studio situation). The panel was encouraged not to make unnecessary facial expressions, or make verbal/non-verbal communications with the participants.


Interaction between physiological and subjective states predicts the effect of a judging panel on the postures of cellists in performance.

Endo S, Juhlberg K, Bradbury A, Wing AM - Front Psychol (2014)

(A) Illustration of the experimental setup. A total of 29 small markers were attached to the upper body of the participants and the instrument. (B) The left hand ring finger position was transformed to align with the longitudinal axis of the instrument and the bridge on the cello was used as the center of the Cartesian coordinate. (C) Music score designed for the purpose of the present study. The three high notes are indicated by the arrows. Fingerings (instructions on which finger to use, where index = 1, middle = 2, ring = 3, little = 4) were specified in the score for the participants. (D) An example of behavioral and physiological measures from a single trial. The heart rate is converted to bpm. Zero in the finger position indicates the position of the bridge.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125750&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Illustration of the experimental setup. A total of 29 small markers were attached to the upper body of the participants and the instrument. (B) The left hand ring finger position was transformed to align with the longitudinal axis of the instrument and the bridge on the cello was used as the center of the Cartesian coordinate. (C) Music score designed for the purpose of the present study. The three high notes are indicated by the arrows. Fingerings (instructions on which finger to use, where index = 1, middle = 2, ring = 3, little = 4) were specified in the score for the participants. (D) An example of behavioral and physiological measures from a single trial. The heart rate is converted to bpm. Zero in the finger position indicates the position of the bridge.
Mentions: Participants played a piece of music based on a fragment of Brahms Double Concerto Op. 102, specifically arranged and fingered for this study by one of the authors (Adrian Bradbury), and given to each participant at least 24 h before their session. The music score was an 11-bar piece played at a tempo of 60 bpm. The piece contained three high notes (indicate by arrows in Figure 1C) placed two bars apart from each other and executed with the ring finger of the left hand. The pitch of the high notes, and therefore the distance covered by the left hand up the fingerboard to reach them, increased progressively over three levels. In an attempt to provoke stress in the participants, in the middle of the experiment, the panel of judges was introduced into the room and sat behind the table, facing the participants. The panel consisted of two of the authors. All participants knew one member of the panel (Adrian Bradbury) as he was either their colleague or on their teaching staff, but not the other (Alan M. Wing or Satoshi Endo). The experiment was conducted by another researcher (Kristina Juhlberg) and the panel had no interaction with the participants throughout the study and merely acted as observers. The participants were not informed that the judges were researchers. To further attempt to increase the performance pressure, the panel also informed the participant that his or her performance would be rated and recorded. In addition, the panel turned on the red light bulb placed in front of them to signal the start of the (sham) recording. We judged that some pressure would at least be elicited by association with genuinely stressful performance situations, hence the panel behind a desk (quasi audition situation) and the red light (quasi recording studio situation). The panel was encouraged not to make unnecessary facial expressions, or make verbal/non-verbal communications with the participants.

Bottom Line: This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance.In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy.This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chair of Information-Oriented Control, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technische Universität München Munich, Germany ; SyMoN Lab, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham Birmingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance. Twenty four expert cellists played a short piece of music, to a metronome beat, in the presence and absence of the panel. Kinematic analyses showed that in the presence of the panel the temporal execution of left arm shifting movements became less variable and closer to the metronome beat. In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy. A detailed postural analysis indicated that left elbow angle during execution of a given high note was correlated with level of heart rate, though the nature of this correlation was systematically affected by the relevant participant's subjective state: if anxious, a higher heart rate correlated with a more flexed elbow, if not anxious then with a more extended elbow. Our results suggest a change in physiological state alone does not reliably predict a change in behavior in performing cellists, which instead depends on the interaction between physiological state and subjective experience of anxiety. This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus