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Different pioneer plant species select specific rhizosphere bacterial communities in a high mountain environment.

Ciccazzo S, Esposito A, Rolli E, Zerbe S, Daffonchio D, Brusetti L - Springerplus (2014)

Bottom Line: The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities.Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat.ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities. Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat. To allow for a culture-independent perspective, total environmental DNA was extracted from both rhizosphere and bare soil samples and analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that rhizobacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas bare soil was colonized by Acidobacteria and Clostridia. UniFrac significance calculated on DGGE results confirmed the rhizosphere effect exerted by the 12 species and showed different bacterial communities (P < 0.05) associated with all the plant species. These results pointed out that specific rhizobacterial communities were selected by pioneer plants of different species in a high mountain ecosystem characterized by oligotrophic and harsh environmental conditions, during an early primary succession.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bacterial community structure by ARISA fingerprinting analysis. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis of the ARISA patterns of the bacterial communities associated to the 12 pioneer plant species rhizosphere and to the unvegetated soil. Symbols are as follows: black circle - bare soil; little black square - Linaria alpina; big black square - Leucanthemopsis alpina; black triangle - Silene acaulis; cross - Festuca halleri; asterisk - Senecio carniolicus; plus - Minuartia sedoides; white square - Gnaphalium supinum; black oval - Veronica bellidioides; white oval - Potentilla aurea; black diamond - Sibbaldia procumbens; white rectangle - Sedum alpestre; black wedge - Saxifraga bryoides. Values are means ± SD.
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Fig2: Bacterial community structure by ARISA fingerprinting analysis. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis of the ARISA patterns of the bacterial communities associated to the 12 pioneer plant species rhizosphere and to the unvegetated soil. Symbols are as follows: black circle - bare soil; little black square - Linaria alpina; big black square - Leucanthemopsis alpina; black triangle - Silene acaulis; cross - Festuca halleri; asterisk - Senecio carniolicus; plus - Minuartia sedoides; white square - Gnaphalium supinum; black oval - Veronica bellidioides; white oval - Potentilla aurea; black diamond - Sibbaldia procumbens; white rectangle - Sedum alpestre; black wedge - Saxifraga bryoides. Values are means ± SD.

Mentions: We studied the pioneer plants using a NMDS analysis based on Bray Curtis similarity measure (Figure 2). Stress value of NMDS analysis was 0.17. On the NMDS plot with the standard deviation, the replicated samples of bare soils are separated by the replicated samples of all the 12 plant species, indicating that each pioneer plant was able to modify the soil bacterial community and select specific rhizobacterial taxa. Five out of twelve plants, i.e. G. supinum/V. bellidioides and Lc. alpina/S. carniolicus/S. acaulis, grouped together, indicating a similar rhizobacterial community structure.Figure 2


Different pioneer plant species select specific rhizosphere bacterial communities in a high mountain environment.

Ciccazzo S, Esposito A, Rolli E, Zerbe S, Daffonchio D, Brusetti L - Springerplus (2014)

Bacterial community structure by ARISA fingerprinting analysis. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis of the ARISA patterns of the bacterial communities associated to the 12 pioneer plant species rhizosphere and to the unvegetated soil. Symbols are as follows: black circle - bare soil; little black square - Linaria alpina; big black square - Leucanthemopsis alpina; black triangle - Silene acaulis; cross - Festuca halleri; asterisk - Senecio carniolicus; plus - Minuartia sedoides; white square - Gnaphalium supinum; black oval - Veronica bellidioides; white oval - Potentilla aurea; black diamond - Sibbaldia procumbens; white rectangle - Sedum alpestre; black wedge - Saxifraga bryoides. Values are means ± SD.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125605&req=5

Fig2: Bacterial community structure by ARISA fingerprinting analysis. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis of the ARISA patterns of the bacterial communities associated to the 12 pioneer plant species rhizosphere and to the unvegetated soil. Symbols are as follows: black circle - bare soil; little black square - Linaria alpina; big black square - Leucanthemopsis alpina; black triangle - Silene acaulis; cross - Festuca halleri; asterisk - Senecio carniolicus; plus - Minuartia sedoides; white square - Gnaphalium supinum; black oval - Veronica bellidioides; white oval - Potentilla aurea; black diamond - Sibbaldia procumbens; white rectangle - Sedum alpestre; black wedge - Saxifraga bryoides. Values are means ± SD.
Mentions: We studied the pioneer plants using a NMDS analysis based on Bray Curtis similarity measure (Figure 2). Stress value of NMDS analysis was 0.17. On the NMDS plot with the standard deviation, the replicated samples of bare soils are separated by the replicated samples of all the 12 plant species, indicating that each pioneer plant was able to modify the soil bacterial community and select specific rhizobacterial taxa. Five out of twelve plants, i.e. G. supinum/V. bellidioides and Lc. alpina/S. carniolicus/S. acaulis, grouped together, indicating a similar rhizobacterial community structure.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities.Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat.ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities. Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat. To allow for a culture-independent perspective, total environmental DNA was extracted from both rhizosphere and bare soil samples and analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that rhizobacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas bare soil was colonized by Acidobacteria and Clostridia. UniFrac significance calculated on DGGE results confirmed the rhizosphere effect exerted by the 12 species and showed different bacterial communities (P < 0.05) associated with all the plant species. These results pointed out that specific rhizobacterial communities were selected by pioneer plants of different species in a high mountain ecosystem characterized by oligotrophic and harsh environmental conditions, during an early primary succession.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus