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Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

Orkun Ö, Karaer Z, Çakmak A, Nalbantoğlu S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively.More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey.Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

ABSTRACT

Background: The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva).

Conclusions/significance: This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey. Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic tree based on aligned sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. with Toxoplasma gondii as outgroup and constructed by using Maximum Likelihood method calculated under the GTR+I+G substitution model in MEGA5.1 software.The babesial sequences obtained in this study are shown in a bold font. GenBank accession numbers of sequences and names of lineages are given before species names.
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pntd-0003067-g002: Phylogenetic tree based on aligned sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. with Toxoplasma gondii as outgroup and constructed by using Maximum Likelihood method calculated under the GTR+I+G substitution model in MEGA5.1 software.The babesial sequences obtained in this study are shown in a bold font. GenBank accession numbers of sequences and names of lineages are given before species names.

Mentions: Every DNA sample was found to be positive for the tick 16S rDNA and was subjected to PCR assay to detect tick-borne pathogens. Additionally, pre-PCR tests, which are performed to determine the sensitivity of PCR assay, showed that even the lowest copies of bacterial and protozoan genes are yielded visible positive bands. As a result of the PCR analyses, Babesia spp. was detected in 4 tick specimens (2.3%). 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence indicated that B. crassa, B. major and B. rossi were found in Ha. parva, Ha. punctata and Ha. parva tick individuals, respectively, attached to humans in central Ankara. Among these, one H. parva infected with B. crassa was also infected with R. hoogstraalii. Additionally, B. occultans was detected in 1 H. marginatum to a person attached in Kalecik. 5S-23S rDNA IGS nucleotide sequences derived from Borrelia spp. positive ticks displayed that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was found in 6 tick specimens (3.5%): 1 H. marginatum attached in Çubuk, 1 H. excavatum, 2 Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and 2 Ha. parva attached in Central Ankara. Furthermore, rickettsial DNA was detected in 46 ticks (27.2%). Rickettsia spp. was determined as the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen in this study. OmpA gene sequence analysis showed that R. aeschlimannii was detected in 5 H. marginatum attached in Bala, Çamlıdere, Kızılcahamam and central Ankara, 1 H. aegyptium attached in Kazan and 1 unfed H. aegyptium, which was originally obtained as engorged nymph from a person and then allowed to molt to the adult stage as described above in central Ankara and 1 H. excavatum attached in central Ankara. 16 D. marginatus, which makes 64 percent of the total D. marginatus ticks, attached in Akyurt, Elmadağ, Çubuk, Gölbaşı, Kızılcahamam, Polatlı and central Ankara were found to be infected with R. slovaca. According to the gltA nucleotide sequences (we could not obtain PCR products from the ompA gene), R. hoogstraalii was detected in 22 of 35 Ha. parva ticks attached in Ayaş, Akyurt, Çubuk, Gölbaşı, and central Ankara. We could not detect DNA of Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., or Rickettsia spp. in Haemaphysalis spp. nymph, I. ricinus, Rh. bursa, Rh sanguineus or Rh. turanicus specimens. Detailed information about the tested ticks and the nucleotide similarities of the obtained Babesia, Borrelia, and Rickettsia sequences in this study are given in Table 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, Phylogenetic trees were constructed separately by using 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp., 5S-23S rDNA IGS of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and ompA and gltA genes of Rickettsia spp. are illustrated in Figs. 2–5.


Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

Orkun Ö, Karaer Z, Çakmak A, Nalbantoğlu S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Phylogenetic tree based on aligned sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. with Toxoplasma gondii as outgroup and constructed by using Maximum Likelihood method calculated under the GTR+I+G substitution model in MEGA5.1 software.The babesial sequences obtained in this study are shown in a bold font. GenBank accession numbers of sequences and names of lineages are given before species names.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125308&req=5

pntd-0003067-g002: Phylogenetic tree based on aligned sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. with Toxoplasma gondii as outgroup and constructed by using Maximum Likelihood method calculated under the GTR+I+G substitution model in MEGA5.1 software.The babesial sequences obtained in this study are shown in a bold font. GenBank accession numbers of sequences and names of lineages are given before species names.
Mentions: Every DNA sample was found to be positive for the tick 16S rDNA and was subjected to PCR assay to detect tick-borne pathogens. Additionally, pre-PCR tests, which are performed to determine the sensitivity of PCR assay, showed that even the lowest copies of bacterial and protozoan genes are yielded visible positive bands. As a result of the PCR analyses, Babesia spp. was detected in 4 tick specimens (2.3%). 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence indicated that B. crassa, B. major and B. rossi were found in Ha. parva, Ha. punctata and Ha. parva tick individuals, respectively, attached to humans in central Ankara. Among these, one H. parva infected with B. crassa was also infected with R. hoogstraalii. Additionally, B. occultans was detected in 1 H. marginatum to a person attached in Kalecik. 5S-23S rDNA IGS nucleotide sequences derived from Borrelia spp. positive ticks displayed that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was found in 6 tick specimens (3.5%): 1 H. marginatum attached in Çubuk, 1 H. excavatum, 2 Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and 2 Ha. parva attached in Central Ankara. Furthermore, rickettsial DNA was detected in 46 ticks (27.2%). Rickettsia spp. was determined as the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen in this study. OmpA gene sequence analysis showed that R. aeschlimannii was detected in 5 H. marginatum attached in Bala, Çamlıdere, Kızılcahamam and central Ankara, 1 H. aegyptium attached in Kazan and 1 unfed H. aegyptium, which was originally obtained as engorged nymph from a person and then allowed to molt to the adult stage as described above in central Ankara and 1 H. excavatum attached in central Ankara. 16 D. marginatus, which makes 64 percent of the total D. marginatus ticks, attached in Akyurt, Elmadağ, Çubuk, Gölbaşı, Kızılcahamam, Polatlı and central Ankara were found to be infected with R. slovaca. According to the gltA nucleotide sequences (we could not obtain PCR products from the ompA gene), R. hoogstraalii was detected in 22 of 35 Ha. parva ticks attached in Ayaş, Akyurt, Çubuk, Gölbaşı, and central Ankara. We could not detect DNA of Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., or Rickettsia spp. in Haemaphysalis spp. nymph, I. ricinus, Rh. bursa, Rh sanguineus or Rh. turanicus specimens. Detailed information about the tested ticks and the nucleotide similarities of the obtained Babesia, Borrelia, and Rickettsia sequences in this study are given in Table 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, Phylogenetic trees were constructed separately by using 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp., 5S-23S rDNA IGS of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and ompA and gltA genes of Rickettsia spp. are illustrated in Figs. 2–5.

Bottom Line: In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively.More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey.Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

ABSTRACT

Background: The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva).

Conclusions/significance: This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey. Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus