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Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

Albertson LK, Cardinale BJ, Sklar LS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport.However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species.We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in streams where multiple species of caddisfly are present.

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Impacts of monocultures and polycultures of caddisflies on critical shear stress.Values are means ±1 SEM for N = 8. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments.
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pone-0103417-g002: Impacts of monocultures and polycultures of caddisflies on critical shear stress.Values are means ±1 SEM for N = 8. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments.

Mentions: Flumes containing single species had significantly higher near-bed shear stress (τb) required to initiate sediment motion than did control flumes that were not colonized by caddisfly larvae (Figure 2; Table 1). Compared to control treatments, critical shear stress was 57% higher in treatments with Ceratopsyche and 109% higher in treatments with Arctopsyche for an average of 83% higher in treatments containing monocultures of caddisflies (Figure 2, p<0.001). Critical shear stress in the patches with the larger species (Arctopsyche) was higher than in patches with the smaller species (Ceratopsyche), indicating that the larger species had a stronger impact on incipient grain motion. We compared our measurements of shear stress to published values using the non-dimensional shear stress, or Shields stress (Table 1), and found that our measurements, which varied between 0.034–0.086, fall within the range of Shields stress values found in natural gravel-bedded streams [18].


Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

Albertson LK, Cardinale BJ, Sklar LS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Impacts of monocultures and polycultures of caddisflies on critical shear stress.Values are means ±1 SEM for N = 8. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125303&req=5

pone-0103417-g002: Impacts of monocultures and polycultures of caddisflies on critical shear stress.Values are means ±1 SEM for N = 8. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments.
Mentions: Flumes containing single species had significantly higher near-bed shear stress (τb) required to initiate sediment motion than did control flumes that were not colonized by caddisfly larvae (Figure 2; Table 1). Compared to control treatments, critical shear stress was 57% higher in treatments with Ceratopsyche and 109% higher in treatments with Arctopsyche for an average of 83% higher in treatments containing monocultures of caddisflies (Figure 2, p<0.001). Critical shear stress in the patches with the larger species (Arctopsyche) was higher than in patches with the smaller species (Ceratopsyche), indicating that the larger species had a stronger impact on incipient grain motion. We compared our measurements of shear stress to published values using the non-dimensional shear stress, or Shields stress (Table 1), and found that our measurements, which varied between 0.034–0.086, fall within the range of Shields stress values found in natural gravel-bedded streams [18].

Bottom Line: Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport.However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species.We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in streams where multiple species of caddisfly are present.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus