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Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

Guagliardo SA, Barboza JL, Morrison AC, Astete H, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Kitron U - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads.Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.

Methods: We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.

Results: Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.

Conclusion: In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Larval and pupal productivity by container type.A) Larval productivity, B) Pupal productivity.
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pntd-0003033-g004: Larval and pupal productivity by container type.A) Larval productivity, B) Pupal productivity.

Mentions: Among containers that were positive for Ae. aegypti, Culex genus mosquitoes were also found in 8.6% of containers (11/128). The most common types of water-holding containers found (regardless of infestation status) were plastic buckets (61.2% of all containers) and large water drums (10.5% of all containers). Although plastic containers were very common (1,977 found), the proportion infested was small (2.7%). Toilets and drains had the highest infestation level (17.0% positive of 23), followed by tires (12.8% positive of 39) and large water storage tanks/drums (11.5% positive of 340) (Table 4). Productivity analysis by container type (Figure 4) demonstrated that plastic containers and water storage tanks/drums produced 41.1% and 35.6% of all pupae, respectively, followed by animal watering pans(11.7%). A similar pattern held for larval productivity, with plastic containers and water tanks/drums accounting for 33.4% and 32.0% of the larvae, respectively.


Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

Guagliardo SA, Barboza JL, Morrison AC, Astete H, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Kitron U - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Larval and pupal productivity by container type.A) Larval productivity, B) Pupal productivity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125293&req=5

pntd-0003033-g004: Larval and pupal productivity by container type.A) Larval productivity, B) Pupal productivity.
Mentions: Among containers that were positive for Ae. aegypti, Culex genus mosquitoes were also found in 8.6% of containers (11/128). The most common types of water-holding containers found (regardless of infestation status) were plastic buckets (61.2% of all containers) and large water drums (10.5% of all containers). Although plastic containers were very common (1,977 found), the proportion infested was small (2.7%). Toilets and drains had the highest infestation level (17.0% positive of 23), followed by tires (12.8% positive of 39) and large water storage tanks/drums (11.5% positive of 340) (Table 4). Productivity analysis by container type (Figure 4) demonstrated that plastic containers and water storage tanks/drums produced 41.1% and 35.6% of all pupae, respectively, followed by animal watering pans(11.7%). A similar pattern held for larval productivity, with plastic containers and water tanks/drums accounting for 33.4% and 32.0% of the larvae, respectively.

Bottom Line: To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads.Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.

Methods: We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.

Results: Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.

Conclusion: In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus