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Attentional blink is hierarchically modulated by phonological, morphological, semantic and lexical connections between two Chinese characters.

Cao HW, Jin KB, Li CY, Yan HM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect.We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase.The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ∼500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

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The sequence of events during the experimental paradigm for each trial.The presentation duration of characters was 60 msec/item. T1 and T2 were displayed in bold, while the distractors were presented in normal font. The subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1 and T2 from two different panels of eight Chinese characters.
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pone-0104626-g002: The sequence of events during the experimental paradigm for each trial.The presentation duration of characters was 60 msec/item. T1 and T2 were displayed in bold, while the distractors were presented in normal font. The subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1 and T2 from two different panels of eight Chinese characters.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the sequence of events during the experimental phase. Each trial started with the appearance of a black fixation dot (0.3° in diameter) at the center of the screen, which was extinguished after 1000 ms and was followed by the appearance of 3–7 distractors. Next, the two targets were selected randomly from the two stimulus corpora and presented in sequence but randomly separated by 0–7 distractors. Finally, 2–5 distractors were presented as a backward mask after the second target. The sequence of distractors varied randomly, but identical characters never appeared in a single trial. The presentation duration of each character was 60 msec/item. If there was no distractor between the two targets (i.e., T2 immediately followed T1), the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 60 msec, which is referred to as lag 1 [31]. Likewise, when the two targets were separated by 1–7 distractors, the SOA was designated as lag 2–8, respectively. After the RSVP, the first panel containing eight bold, black Chinese characters was shown on the screen, and the subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1. After T1 was chosen, a second panel with another eight characters was presented, and the subjects were asked to identify T2. The eight unique characters in the panel were randomly selected from a set of Chinese characters. Once the subjects made their choices, the next trial began. After the subjects’ identification of T1 and T2 was recorded, there was no feedback to the participants about their choice. Each subject performed in two sessions, and each session included 15 blocks of 25 trials resulting in a total of 750 individual trials.


Attentional blink is hierarchically modulated by phonological, morphological, semantic and lexical connections between two Chinese characters.

Cao HW, Jin KB, Li CY, Yan HM - PLoS ONE (2014)

The sequence of events during the experimental paradigm for each trial.The presentation duration of characters was 60 msec/item. T1 and T2 were displayed in bold, while the distractors were presented in normal font. The subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1 and T2 from two different panels of eight Chinese characters.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125286&req=5

pone-0104626-g002: The sequence of events during the experimental paradigm for each trial.The presentation duration of characters was 60 msec/item. T1 and T2 were displayed in bold, while the distractors were presented in normal font. The subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1 and T2 from two different panels of eight Chinese characters.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the sequence of events during the experimental phase. Each trial started with the appearance of a black fixation dot (0.3° in diameter) at the center of the screen, which was extinguished after 1000 ms and was followed by the appearance of 3–7 distractors. Next, the two targets were selected randomly from the two stimulus corpora and presented in sequence but randomly separated by 0–7 distractors. Finally, 2–5 distractors were presented as a backward mask after the second target. The sequence of distractors varied randomly, but identical characters never appeared in a single trial. The presentation duration of each character was 60 msec/item. If there was no distractor between the two targets (i.e., T2 immediately followed T1), the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 60 msec, which is referred to as lag 1 [31]. Likewise, when the two targets were separated by 1–7 distractors, the SOA was designated as lag 2–8, respectively. After the RSVP, the first panel containing eight bold, black Chinese characters was shown on the screen, and the subjects were asked to use a computer mouse to identify T1. After T1 was chosen, a second panel with another eight characters was presented, and the subjects were asked to identify T2. The eight unique characters in the panel were randomly selected from a set of Chinese characters. Once the subjects made their choices, the next trial began. After the subjects’ identification of T1 and T2 was recorded, there was no feedback to the participants about their choice. Each subject performed in two sessions, and each session included 15 blocks of 25 trials resulting in a total of 750 individual trials.

Bottom Line: In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect.We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase.The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ∼500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

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