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Attentional blink is hierarchically modulated by phonological, morphological, semantic and lexical connections between two Chinese characters.

Cao HW, Jin KB, Li CY, Yan HM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect.We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase.The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ∼500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

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Examples of five experimental stimuli pairs and one distractor that fall into the following categories: (a) homophonic characters, (b) orthographically similar characters, (c) semantically related characters, (d) lexical two-character Chinese phrases, (e) unrelated characters, and (f) distractors.The pronunciation of each character according to the Chinese phonetic labeling system (i.e., pinyin) is listed below the character, the number at the end of the pronunciation denotes the tone, and the English meaning is listed at the bottom of each character within a square bracket.
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pone-0104626-g001: Examples of five experimental stimuli pairs and one distractor that fall into the following categories: (a) homophonic characters, (b) orthographically similar characters, (c) semantically related characters, (d) lexical two-character Chinese phrases, (e) unrelated characters, and (f) distractors.The pronunciation of each character according to the Chinese phonetic labeling system (i.e., pinyin) is listed below the character, the number at the end of the pronunciation denotes the tone, and the English meaning is listed at the bottom of each character within a square bracket.

Mentions: The distractors consisted of 72 of the most commonly used simple Chinese characters, which were composed of two to seven strokes. These characters were unrelated in terms of their graphic, phonological, semantic and lexical information. Figure 1 contains an example from each of the five categories of experimental pairs as well as a distractor. The English translations are listed underneath the Chinese characters.


Attentional blink is hierarchically modulated by phonological, morphological, semantic and lexical connections between two Chinese characters.

Cao HW, Jin KB, Li CY, Yan HM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Examples of five experimental stimuli pairs and one distractor that fall into the following categories: (a) homophonic characters, (b) orthographically similar characters, (c) semantically related characters, (d) lexical two-character Chinese phrases, (e) unrelated characters, and (f) distractors.The pronunciation of each character according to the Chinese phonetic labeling system (i.e., pinyin) is listed below the character, the number at the end of the pronunciation denotes the tone, and the English meaning is listed at the bottom of each character within a square bracket.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4125286&req=5

pone-0104626-g001: Examples of five experimental stimuli pairs and one distractor that fall into the following categories: (a) homophonic characters, (b) orthographically similar characters, (c) semantically related characters, (d) lexical two-character Chinese phrases, (e) unrelated characters, and (f) distractors.The pronunciation of each character according to the Chinese phonetic labeling system (i.e., pinyin) is listed below the character, the number at the end of the pronunciation denotes the tone, and the English meaning is listed at the bottom of each character within a square bracket.
Mentions: The distractors consisted of 72 of the most commonly used simple Chinese characters, which were composed of two to seven strokes. These characters were unrelated in terms of their graphic, phonological, semantic and lexical information. Figure 1 contains an example from each of the five categories of experimental pairs as well as a distractor. The English translations are listed underneath the Chinese characters.

Bottom Line: In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect.We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase.The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ∼500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words.

Show MeSH