Molecular detection of adenoviruses, rhabdoviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Kenya.
Bottom Line: We screened 217 bats of at least 20 species from 17 locations in Kenya during July and August of 2006 for the presence of adenovirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus nucleic acids using generic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR assays.By sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, the Kenya bat paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses from this study may represent novel viral lineages within their respective families; the Kenya bat adenoviruses could not be confirmed as novel, because the same region sequences from other known bat adenovirus genomes for comparison were lacking.Our study adds to previous evidence that bats carry diverse, potentially zoonotic viruses and may be coinfected with more than one virus.
Affiliation: Division of Viral Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, Kansas; Zoology Department, National Museum, Nairobi, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Twelve paramyxovirus sequences were detected from 11 Kenya bats by three different generic paramyxovirus RT-PCR assays as described before.7 The KY159 bat was identified as having two different paramyxovirus sequences (KY159a and KY159b). Seven sequences (KY196, KY291, KY149, KY151, KY159a, KY162, and KY166) were detected by both generic RT-PCR assays of the subgroup of Respirovirus-Morbillivirus-Henipavirus (Figure 3A) and Paramyxovirinae (Figure 3B), and five sequences were detected by generic RT-PCR assays of Paramyxovirinae (KY241 and KY248) subgroup of either Respirovirus-Morbillivirus-Henipavirus (KY283) or Avulavirus-Rubulavirus (KY227 and KY159b) (Figure 3C). These 12 paramyxovirus sequences belonged to three different taxa groups based on partial polymerase gene (L) sequences. Nine sequences were grouped with Beilong virus, J virus, and unclassified bat paramyxoviruses within Paramyxovirinae that were identified in bats from Central and South America, Indian Ocean islands, Africa, and Europe.18–22 Notably, these nine sequences formed five distinct lineages (KY196, KY291, KY241, KY248, KY149-KY151-KY159a-KY162-KY166) with 72–78% nucleotide identity between each lineage, suggesting five novel lineages. Sequences within the lineage KY149-KY151-KY159a-KY162-KY166 shared 97–100% nucleotide identity with each other. Interestingly, KY196 and KY291 sequences from the Kenya Miniopterus bats were grouped with sequences of paramyxoviruses from other insectivorous bats, including Miniopterus originating from Comoros and Madagascar and a Hipposideros gigas bat from Gabon, respectively (Figure 3A).19,22 One sequence (KY283) identified in R. aegyptiacus was grouped with another known bat henipavirus-related virus identified in a R. aegyptiacus bat from Gabon (72% nucleotide identity). This finding supports the previous suggestion that pteropodid bats maintain circulation of henipavirus-related viruses in several continents of the Old World.22 Two sequences (KY227 and KY159b) identified in an R. aegyptiacus bat and an O. martiensseni bat, respectively, were grouped within the Rubulavirus genus (Figure 3C). KY227 was more related to human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV4b; 85% nucleotide identity), and KY159b from the O. martiensseni bat was more related to GH1a from the Eidolon helvum bat from Ghana (65% nucleotide identity) based on partial L gene sequences. We detected paramyxovirus RNA from three insectivorous bat genera (Cardioderma, Chaerephon, and Otomops) that were not previously reported to be carriers of paramyxoviruses.
Affiliation: Division of Viral Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, Kansas; Zoology Department, National Museum, Nairobi, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.