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The modelled raindrop size distribution of Skudai, Peninsular Malaysia, using exponential and lognormal distributions.

Yakubu ML, Yusop Z, Yusof F - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region.Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness.This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental and Water Resources Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, 713101 Wudil, Kano, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.

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Hudson [4] calibration curve.
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fig2: Hudson [4] calibration curve.

Mentions: The formed capsules were marked and immediately transported to a laboratory and oven dried using automated universal oven (Memmert, model 16.1) for 12 hrs at 105°C. The flour capsules were divided into different size fractions according to BS 812-103.1:1985 method for determination of particle size distribution. Thus, the oven dried flour samples were poured into 300 mm diameter standard sieves. The sieves were then stacked in decreasing size (6.30, 5.00, 4.47, 2.36, 2.00, 1.18, and 0.60 mm) and secured onto a mechanical shaker. The contents were allowed to vibrate for 10 min. The retained pellets were carefully dislodged and emptied into a preweighted stainless steel container with the help of a handheld brush. The weight of each particle size fraction retained in any given sieve was obtained using a weighing balance accurate to 0.001 g. A total of 720859 capsules were counted and measured. The drop diameter for each sieve class in a given sample was then calculated by converting the weight of the flour capsule into an appropriate raindrop diameter using the Hudson [4] calibration curve shown in Figure 2. Six raindrop diameter classes were obtained (1.95–2.65, 2.67–3.67, 3.68–5.81, 5.82–6.00, 6.10–7.02, and >7.03 mm) based on the corresponding sieve sizes used.


The modelled raindrop size distribution of Skudai, Peninsular Malaysia, using exponential and lognormal distributions.

Yakubu ML, Yusop Z, Yusof F - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Hudson [4] calibration curve.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4121099&req=5

fig2: Hudson [4] calibration curve.
Mentions: The formed capsules were marked and immediately transported to a laboratory and oven dried using automated universal oven (Memmert, model 16.1) for 12 hrs at 105°C. The flour capsules were divided into different size fractions according to BS 812-103.1:1985 method for determination of particle size distribution. Thus, the oven dried flour samples were poured into 300 mm diameter standard sieves. The sieves were then stacked in decreasing size (6.30, 5.00, 4.47, 2.36, 2.00, 1.18, and 0.60 mm) and secured onto a mechanical shaker. The contents were allowed to vibrate for 10 min. The retained pellets were carefully dislodged and emptied into a preweighted stainless steel container with the help of a handheld brush. The weight of each particle size fraction retained in any given sieve was obtained using a weighing balance accurate to 0.001 g. A total of 720859 capsules were counted and measured. The drop diameter for each sieve class in a given sample was then calculated by converting the weight of the flour capsule into an appropriate raindrop diameter using the Hudson [4] calibration curve shown in Figure 2. Six raindrop diameter classes were obtained (1.95–2.65, 2.67–3.67, 3.68–5.81, 5.82–6.00, 6.10–7.02, and >7.03 mm) based on the corresponding sieve sizes used.

Bottom Line: This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region.Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness.This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental and Water Resources Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, 713101 Wudil, Kano, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.

Show MeSH