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Differences in gene expression between mouse and human for dynamically regulated genes in early embryo.

Madissoon E, Töhönen V, Vesterlund L, Katayama S, Unneberg P, Inzunza J, Hovatta O, Kere J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development.We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases.We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences and Nutrition; Center for Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Infertility is a worldwide concern that can be treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to identify gene expression patterns for the first five days of human development, and many functional studies utilize mouse as a model system. We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases. We selected 70 candidate genes for human preimplantation development and investigated their expression in the early mouse development from oocyte to the 8-cell stage. Maternally loaded genes expectedly decreased in expression during development both in human and mouse. We discovered that 25 significantly upregulated genes after fertilization in human included 13 genes whose orthologs in mouse behaved differently and mimicked the expression profile of maternally expressed genes. Our findings highlight many significant differences in gene expression patterns during mouse and human preimplantation development. We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA.

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Expression profiles of NLRP and PRAME family genes in human and mouse.Most NLRP family members in the human microarray data share maternal expression pattern or are expressed at low levels (A). Mouse NLRP family orthologs in the TaqMan array share the similar maternal expression pattern, except for Nlrp12 (B). One gene in the mouse PRAME family is maternally expressed, Pramef12, while others are upregulated after fertilization (C), consistenly with the human PRAME family members on Figure 5. The results are supported by sequencing data by Xue, et al (2013) for human and mouse NLRP families (D, E) and mouse PRAME family (F). NLRP7 is upregulated after human 8-cell stage in both the microarray and sequencing dataset, in contrast to overall trend in the family (A, D). Mouse Nlrp12 is lowly expressed in both mouse datasets while the other genes are mostly higher expressed in the oocyte and 1-cell embryo (B, E). Mouse Pramef12 gene is maternally loaded in both TaqMan array and sequencing method in contrast to the rest of the genes in the family (C, F). Average log2(comparative expression) values for each stage were used for the human data obtained from Zhang et al., 2007 microarray expression dataset and average −ΔCt values were used for the mouse expression data produced in the current study. Undetected samples were attributed the −ΔCt value of −14.2. Human and mouse sequencing data from Xue, et al, 2013 shows average ln(RPKM+1) values for the same biological stage.
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pone-0102949-g004: Expression profiles of NLRP and PRAME family genes in human and mouse.Most NLRP family members in the human microarray data share maternal expression pattern or are expressed at low levels (A). Mouse NLRP family orthologs in the TaqMan array share the similar maternal expression pattern, except for Nlrp12 (B). One gene in the mouse PRAME family is maternally expressed, Pramef12, while others are upregulated after fertilization (C), consistenly with the human PRAME family members on Figure 5. The results are supported by sequencing data by Xue, et al (2013) for human and mouse NLRP families (D, E) and mouse PRAME family (F). NLRP7 is upregulated after human 8-cell stage in both the microarray and sequencing dataset, in contrast to overall trend in the family (A, D). Mouse Nlrp12 is lowly expressed in both mouse datasets while the other genes are mostly higher expressed in the oocyte and 1-cell embryo (B, E). Mouse Pramef12 gene is maternally loaded in both TaqMan array and sequencing method in contrast to the rest of the genes in the family (C, F). Average log2(comparative expression) values for each stage were used for the human data obtained from Zhang et al., 2007 microarray expression dataset and average −ΔCt values were used for the mouse expression data produced in the current study. Undetected samples were attributed the −ΔCt value of −14.2. Human and mouse sequencing data from Xue, et al, 2013 shows average ln(RPKM+1) values for the same biological stage.

Mentions: Genes belonging to developmentally interesting gene families were analyzed separately. The NLRP family members in human array and sequencing dataset were mostly downregulated, with the exception of NLRP7, which was upregulated after 8-cell stage in both datasets (Figure 4A, D). The NLRP family members in mouse were also downregulated in the course of time with the exception of Nlrp12 that was low expressed overall (Figure 4B, E).


Differences in gene expression between mouse and human for dynamically regulated genes in early embryo.

Madissoon E, Töhönen V, Vesterlund L, Katayama S, Unneberg P, Inzunza J, Hovatta O, Kere J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Expression profiles of NLRP and PRAME family genes in human and mouse.Most NLRP family members in the human microarray data share maternal expression pattern or are expressed at low levels (A). Mouse NLRP family orthologs in the TaqMan array share the similar maternal expression pattern, except for Nlrp12 (B). One gene in the mouse PRAME family is maternally expressed, Pramef12, while others are upregulated after fertilization (C), consistenly with the human PRAME family members on Figure 5. The results are supported by sequencing data by Xue, et al (2013) for human and mouse NLRP families (D, E) and mouse PRAME family (F). NLRP7 is upregulated after human 8-cell stage in both the microarray and sequencing dataset, in contrast to overall trend in the family (A, D). Mouse Nlrp12 is lowly expressed in both mouse datasets while the other genes are mostly higher expressed in the oocyte and 1-cell embryo (B, E). Mouse Pramef12 gene is maternally loaded in both TaqMan array and sequencing method in contrast to the rest of the genes in the family (C, F). Average log2(comparative expression) values for each stage were used for the human data obtained from Zhang et al., 2007 microarray expression dataset and average −ΔCt values were used for the mouse expression data produced in the current study. Undetected samples were attributed the −ΔCt value of −14.2. Human and mouse sequencing data from Xue, et al, 2013 shows average ln(RPKM+1) values for the same biological stage.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4121084&req=5

pone-0102949-g004: Expression profiles of NLRP and PRAME family genes in human and mouse.Most NLRP family members in the human microarray data share maternal expression pattern or are expressed at low levels (A). Mouse NLRP family orthologs in the TaqMan array share the similar maternal expression pattern, except for Nlrp12 (B). One gene in the mouse PRAME family is maternally expressed, Pramef12, while others are upregulated after fertilization (C), consistenly with the human PRAME family members on Figure 5. The results are supported by sequencing data by Xue, et al (2013) for human and mouse NLRP families (D, E) and mouse PRAME family (F). NLRP7 is upregulated after human 8-cell stage in both the microarray and sequencing dataset, in contrast to overall trend in the family (A, D). Mouse Nlrp12 is lowly expressed in both mouse datasets while the other genes are mostly higher expressed in the oocyte and 1-cell embryo (B, E). Mouse Pramef12 gene is maternally loaded in both TaqMan array and sequencing method in contrast to the rest of the genes in the family (C, F). Average log2(comparative expression) values for each stage were used for the human data obtained from Zhang et al., 2007 microarray expression dataset and average −ΔCt values were used for the mouse expression data produced in the current study. Undetected samples were attributed the −ΔCt value of −14.2. Human and mouse sequencing data from Xue, et al, 2013 shows average ln(RPKM+1) values for the same biological stage.
Mentions: Genes belonging to developmentally interesting gene families were analyzed separately. The NLRP family members in human array and sequencing dataset were mostly downregulated, with the exception of NLRP7, which was upregulated after 8-cell stage in both datasets (Figure 4A, D). The NLRP family members in mouse were also downregulated in the course of time with the exception of Nlrp12 that was low expressed overall (Figure 4B, E).

Bottom Line: Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development.We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases.We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences and Nutrition; Center for Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Infertility is a worldwide concern that can be treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to identify gene expression patterns for the first five days of human development, and many functional studies utilize mouse as a model system. We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases. We selected 70 candidate genes for human preimplantation development and investigated their expression in the early mouse development from oocyte to the 8-cell stage. Maternally loaded genes expectedly decreased in expression during development both in human and mouse. We discovered that 25 significantly upregulated genes after fertilization in human included 13 genes whose orthologs in mouse behaved differently and mimicked the expression profile of maternally expressed genes. Our findings highlight many significant differences in gene expression patterns during mouse and human preimplantation development. We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus