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Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

Chen J, Lu J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources.Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP.The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources, College of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

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Spatial Variations In Bod5, Codmn, Tn, Dn, Nh4+-N, No3−-N, Tp, Dp, Do, Ph, T, Turbidity And Ec In The Study Area.
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pone-0102714-g002: Spatial Variations In Bod5, Codmn, Tn, Dn, Nh4+-N, No3−-N, Tp, Dp, Do, Ph, T, Turbidity And Ec In The Study Area.

Mentions: ANOVA was used to compare river water quality variations between the different seasons (i.e., rainy and dry). Temporal and spatial variations in the physico-chemical parameters are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. More specifically, BOD5, TN, DO, pH, T and turbidity exhibited significant temporal variations (Table 2, p<0.10). Moreover, TN, pH and T were generally higher in the rainy season (April to September), whereas higher values for BOD5, DO and turbidity occurred in the dry season (October to March). Most of the water quality parameters, except pH and T, exhibited considerable spatial variations. BOD5, CODMn and NH4+-N were higher in urban areas compared with surrounding rural areas, whereas DO exhibited a reverse response to the extent of urbanization. TN, DN, NO3−-N, TP and DP were higher in the lower part of the basin where more land has been developed and were lower in the upper-eastern part of the Cao-E River basin. Turbidity and EC were higher in the lower part of the basin (Figure 2) where the reach is often affected by tides and/or point source pollution [36], [37].


Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

Chen J, Lu J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Spatial Variations In Bod5, Codmn, Tn, Dn, Nh4+-N, No3−-N, Tp, Dp, Do, Ph, T, Turbidity And Ec In The Study Area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4121078&req=5

pone-0102714-g002: Spatial Variations In Bod5, Codmn, Tn, Dn, Nh4+-N, No3−-N, Tp, Dp, Do, Ph, T, Turbidity And Ec In The Study Area.
Mentions: ANOVA was used to compare river water quality variations between the different seasons (i.e., rainy and dry). Temporal and spatial variations in the physico-chemical parameters are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. More specifically, BOD5, TN, DO, pH, T and turbidity exhibited significant temporal variations (Table 2, p<0.10). Moreover, TN, pH and T were generally higher in the rainy season (April to September), whereas higher values for BOD5, DO and turbidity occurred in the dry season (October to March). Most of the water quality parameters, except pH and T, exhibited considerable spatial variations. BOD5, CODMn and NH4+-N were higher in urban areas compared with surrounding rural areas, whereas DO exhibited a reverse response to the extent of urbanization. TN, DN, NO3−-N, TP and DP were higher in the lower part of the basin where more land has been developed and were lower in the upper-eastern part of the Cao-E River basin. Turbidity and EC were higher in the lower part of the basin (Figure 2) where the reach is often affected by tides and/or point source pollution [36], [37].

Bottom Line: Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources.Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP.The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources, College of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus