Limits...
Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia.

Brandt R, Mathez-Stiefel SL, Lachmuth S, Hensen I, Rist S - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2013)

Bottom Line: The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees,loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood.These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses.In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services,agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin-Luther-University, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108 Halle/Saale, Germany. regine.brandt@botanik.uni-halle.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration.

Methods: Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models.

Results and discussion: The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g.Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees,loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge.

Conclusions: Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses.For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses. In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services,agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Cultural Importance and Composite Salience of woody species. CulturalImportance (CI) in relation to Composite Salience (Composite S) of 14 selectedwoody species: Baccharis dracunculifolia (BD), Berberiscommutata (BeC), Buddleja coriacea (BuC), Clinopodiumbolivianum (CB), Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Gynoxyspsilophylla (GP), Kaunia saltensis (KS), Lepechiniagraveolens (LG), Minthostachys ovata (MO), Polylepissubtusalbida (PS), Prosopis laevigata (PL), Sambucusperuviana (SP), Schinus molle (SM), Senna aymara(SA).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120936&req=5

Figure 5: Cultural Importance and Composite Salience of woody species. CulturalImportance (CI) in relation to Composite Salience (Composite S) of 14 selectedwoody species: Baccharis dracunculifolia (BD), Berberiscommutata (BeC), Buddleja coriacea (BuC), Clinopodiumbolivianum (CB), Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Gynoxyspsilophylla (GP), Kaunia saltensis (KS), Lepechiniagraveolens (LG), Minthostachys ovata (MO), Polylepissubtusalbida (PS), Prosopis laevigata (PL), Sambucusperuviana (SP), Schinus molle (SM), Senna aymara(SA).

Mentions: During the freelisting exercises, the participants mentioned a total of 33 woody plants(n = 207 plant-reports), 64% of which were naturally-growing native species,15% cultivated native species (e.g. Buddleja coriacea, kishuara; not naturallygrowing in the study area but originating from Bolivia), and 21% cultivated exoticspecies. Trees (46%) were the most frequently-mentioned woody life-form. All of the 14selected species considered promising for use in agroforestry (Table 1) were also mentioned by the participants during the freelisting exercises,except for Berberis commutata (churisik’e). Calculation of the selectedspecies’ CI values was based on a total of 1906 use-reports grouped into nineuse-categories, the most cited of which were fodder (17.8% of use-reports), fuel(17.3%), and environmental uses (15.1%). Among the 14 selected species, S.molle (molle), Prosopis laevigata (thaqo, algarrobo), Eucalyptusglobulus (eucalipto, kalisto), and B. dracunculifolia (t’ola)were assessed as the culturally most important species exhibiting the highest CompositeS and CI values (Figure 5). Between both indices, a highlysignificant and strong correlation (R = 0.811,p < 0.001) was found.


Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia.

Brandt R, Mathez-Stiefel SL, Lachmuth S, Hensen I, Rist S - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2013)

Cultural Importance and Composite Salience of woody species. CulturalImportance (CI) in relation to Composite Salience (Composite S) of 14 selectedwoody species: Baccharis dracunculifolia (BD), Berberiscommutata (BeC), Buddleja coriacea (BuC), Clinopodiumbolivianum (CB), Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Gynoxyspsilophylla (GP), Kaunia saltensis (KS), Lepechiniagraveolens (LG), Minthostachys ovata (MO), Polylepissubtusalbida (PS), Prosopis laevigata (PL), Sambucusperuviana (SP), Schinus molle (SM), Senna aymara(SA).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120936&req=5

Figure 5: Cultural Importance and Composite Salience of woody species. CulturalImportance (CI) in relation to Composite Salience (Composite S) of 14 selectedwoody species: Baccharis dracunculifolia (BD), Berberiscommutata (BeC), Buddleja coriacea (BuC), Clinopodiumbolivianum (CB), Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Gynoxyspsilophylla (GP), Kaunia saltensis (KS), Lepechiniagraveolens (LG), Minthostachys ovata (MO), Polylepissubtusalbida (PS), Prosopis laevigata (PL), Sambucusperuviana (SP), Schinus molle (SM), Senna aymara(SA).
Mentions: During the freelisting exercises, the participants mentioned a total of 33 woody plants(n = 207 plant-reports), 64% of which were naturally-growing native species,15% cultivated native species (e.g. Buddleja coriacea, kishuara; not naturallygrowing in the study area but originating from Bolivia), and 21% cultivated exoticspecies. Trees (46%) were the most frequently-mentioned woody life-form. All of the 14selected species considered promising for use in agroforestry (Table 1) were also mentioned by the participants during the freelisting exercises,except for Berberis commutata (churisik’e). Calculation of the selectedspecies’ CI values was based on a total of 1906 use-reports grouped into nineuse-categories, the most cited of which were fodder (17.8% of use-reports), fuel(17.3%), and environmental uses (15.1%). Among the 14 selected species, S.molle (molle), Prosopis laevigata (thaqo, algarrobo), Eucalyptusglobulus (eucalipto, kalisto), and B. dracunculifolia (t’ola)were assessed as the culturally most important species exhibiting the highest CompositeS and CI values (Figure 5). Between both indices, a highlysignificant and strong correlation (R = 0.811,p < 0.001) was found.

Bottom Line: The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees,loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood.These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses.In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services,agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin-Luther-University, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108 Halle/Saale, Germany. regine.brandt@botanik.uni-halle.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration.

Methods: Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models.

Results and discussion: The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g.Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees,loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge.

Conclusions: Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses.For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses. In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services,agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus