Limits...
Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

Nokhbehsaim M, Keser S, Nogueira AV, Cirelli JA, Jepsen S, Jäger A, Eick S, Deschner J - J Diabetes Res (2014)

Bottom Line: The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link.Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression.In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Dento-Maxillo-Facial Medicine, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany ; Clinical Research Unit 208, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of F. nucleatum (Fn), A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), P. gingivalis (Pg), and T. denticola (Td) (all OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin in PDL cells at 1 d (a). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effect of P. gingivalis (Pg; OD: 0.1) on the adiponectin protein level in medium from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d (b). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups. Effects of P. gingivalis (OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) at 1 d and 3 d (c). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 15); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effects of adiponectin (1 μg/mL) on its own mRNA expression (d) and the expression of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (e) at 1 d. Untreated cells served as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 18); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120919&req=5

fig3: Effects of F. nucleatum (Fn), A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), P. gingivalis (Pg), and T. denticola (Td) (all OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin in PDL cells at 1 d (a). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effect of P. gingivalis (Pg; OD: 0.1) on the adiponectin protein level in medium from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d (b). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups. Effects of P. gingivalis (OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) at 1 d and 3 d (c). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 15); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effects of adiponectin (1 μg/mL) on its own mRNA expression (d) and the expression of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (e) at 1 d. Untreated cells served as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 18); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups.

Mentions: Next we analyzed whether the constitutive mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors is affected by periodontopathogens and inflammatory mediators. Whereas F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans had no significant effects, P. gingivalis and T. denticola diminished significantly the mRNA expression of adiponectin at 1 d (Figure 3(a)). Further experiments revealed that the P. gingivalis-induced inhibition of the adiponectin mRNA expression was dose-dependent, with the strongest inhibition at the highest dose (data not shown). P. gingivalis also inhibited significantly the release of adiponectin protein from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d, as analyzed by ELISA (Figure 3(b)). Moreover, P. gingivalis increased significantly the mRNA expression of AdipoR1 at 1 d (Figure 3(c)). In addition, P. gingivalis enhanced the AdipoR2 mRNA expression at 1 d and 3 d, but these stimulatory effects did not reach significance (Figure 3(c)). Cells were also exposed to IL-1β, but this proinflammatory cytokine had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors at 1 d and 3 d (data not shown).


Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

Nokhbehsaim M, Keser S, Nogueira AV, Cirelli JA, Jepsen S, Jäger A, Eick S, Deschner J - J Diabetes Res (2014)

Effects of F. nucleatum (Fn), A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), P. gingivalis (Pg), and T. denticola (Td) (all OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin in PDL cells at 1 d (a). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effect of P. gingivalis (Pg; OD: 0.1) on the adiponectin protein level in medium from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d (b). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups. Effects of P. gingivalis (OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) at 1 d and 3 d (c). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 15); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effects of adiponectin (1 μg/mL) on its own mRNA expression (d) and the expression of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (e) at 1 d. Untreated cells served as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 18); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120919&req=5

fig3: Effects of F. nucleatum (Fn), A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), P. gingivalis (Pg), and T. denticola (Td) (all OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin in PDL cells at 1 d (a). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effect of P. gingivalis (Pg; OD: 0.1) on the adiponectin protein level in medium from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d (b). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 9); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups. Effects of P. gingivalis (OD: 0.1) on the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) at 1 d and 3 d (c). Untreated cells were used as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 15); ∗significantly (P < 0.05) different from control. Effects of adiponectin (1 μg/mL) on its own mRNA expression (d) and the expression of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (e) at 1 d. Untreated cells served as control. Mean ± SEM (n = 18); ∗significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups.
Mentions: Next we analyzed whether the constitutive mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors is affected by periodontopathogens and inflammatory mediators. Whereas F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans had no significant effects, P. gingivalis and T. denticola diminished significantly the mRNA expression of adiponectin at 1 d (Figure 3(a)). Further experiments revealed that the P. gingivalis-induced inhibition of the adiponectin mRNA expression was dose-dependent, with the strongest inhibition at the highest dose (data not shown). P. gingivalis also inhibited significantly the release of adiponectin protein from PDL cells at 1 d and 2 d, as analyzed by ELISA (Figure 3(b)). Moreover, P. gingivalis increased significantly the mRNA expression of AdipoR1 at 1 d (Figure 3(c)). In addition, P. gingivalis enhanced the AdipoR2 mRNA expression at 1 d and 3 d, but these stimulatory effects did not reach significance (Figure 3(c)). Cells were also exposed to IL-1β, but this proinflammatory cytokine had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors at 1 d and 3 d (data not shown).

Bottom Line: The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link.Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression.In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Dento-Maxillo-Facial Medicine, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany ; Clinical Research Unit 208, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus