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Preconditioning stem cells for in vivo delivery.

Sart S, Ma T, Li Y - Biores Open Access (2014)

Bottom Line: Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage.However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects.Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hydrodynamics Laboratory , CNRS UMR7646, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France .

ABSTRACT
Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage. However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects. The major causes of poor survival of stem cells in vivo are linked to anoikis, potential immune rejection, and oxidative damage mediating apoptosis. This review investigates novel methods and potential molecular mechanisms for stem cell preconditioning in vitro to increase their retention after transplantation in damaged tissues. Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells. Moreover, this review seeks to identify methods of optimizing cell dose preparation to enhance stem cell survival and therapeutic function after transplantation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stem cell encapsulation as a preconditioning treatment. (A) Liquid core/solid shell encapsulation promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (B) Stem cell encapsulation in nonadhesive hydrogels promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (C) Stem cell encapsulation in adhesive hydrogels (i.e., containing integrin- and MMP-binding sites) promotes stem cell adhesion and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation.
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f3: Stem cell encapsulation as a preconditioning treatment. (A) Liquid core/solid shell encapsulation promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (B) Stem cell encapsulation in nonadhesive hydrogels promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (C) Stem cell encapsulation in adhesive hydrogels (i.e., containing integrin- and MMP-binding sites) promotes stem cell adhesion and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation.

Mentions: Two main methodologies have been used for encapsulation: a liquid core containing the cells surrounded by a semisolid membrane, or alternatively, cell embedding within hydrogels either as aggregates or as single cells (Fig. 3).84 Hydrogels and membranes are usually highly hydrophilic, biocompatible, and nonimmunogenic polymeric materials. Various types of materials have been used as hydrogels for encapsulation: natural polymers, such as Matrigel, collagen, gelatin, agarose, and alginate, or synthetic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG).85 Solid capsules and hydrogels generally support mass transport of oxygen and nutrients.86 However, encapsulation can generate the gradients of biomolecules due to diffusion, which may result in the local nutrient and oxygen depletion.87 Hence, a controlled diffusivity is a critical parameter to promote the encapsulated stem cell survival,87 which can be achieved by controlling the polymer concentration.88


Preconditioning stem cells for in vivo delivery.

Sart S, Ma T, Li Y - Biores Open Access (2014)

Stem cell encapsulation as a preconditioning treatment. (A) Liquid core/solid shell encapsulation promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (B) Stem cell encapsulation in nonadhesive hydrogels promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (C) Stem cell encapsulation in adhesive hydrogels (i.e., containing integrin- and MMP-binding sites) promotes stem cell adhesion and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120806&req=5

f3: Stem cell encapsulation as a preconditioning treatment. (A) Liquid core/solid shell encapsulation promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (B) Stem cell encapsulation in nonadhesive hydrogels promotes aggregate formation and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation. (C) Stem cell encapsulation in adhesive hydrogels (i.e., containing integrin- and MMP-binding sites) promotes stem cell adhesion and provides mass transport of biomolecules and immune isolation.
Mentions: Two main methodologies have been used for encapsulation: a liquid core containing the cells surrounded by a semisolid membrane, or alternatively, cell embedding within hydrogels either as aggregates or as single cells (Fig. 3).84 Hydrogels and membranes are usually highly hydrophilic, biocompatible, and nonimmunogenic polymeric materials. Various types of materials have been used as hydrogels for encapsulation: natural polymers, such as Matrigel, collagen, gelatin, agarose, and alginate, or synthetic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG).85 Solid capsules and hydrogels generally support mass transport of oxygen and nutrients.86 However, encapsulation can generate the gradients of biomolecules due to diffusion, which may result in the local nutrient and oxygen depletion.87 Hence, a controlled diffusivity is a critical parameter to promote the encapsulated stem cell survival,87 which can be achieved by controlling the polymer concentration.88

Bottom Line: Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage.However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects.Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hydrodynamics Laboratory , CNRS UMR7646, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France .

ABSTRACT
Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage. However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects. The major causes of poor survival of stem cells in vivo are linked to anoikis, potential immune rejection, and oxidative damage mediating apoptosis. This review investigates novel methods and potential molecular mechanisms for stem cell preconditioning in vitro to increase their retention after transplantation in damaged tissues. Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells. Moreover, this review seeks to identify methods of optimizing cell dose preparation to enhance stem cell survival and therapeutic function after transplantation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus